Anatomy Mnemonics
Dr K Chaudhry

FIRST Author of Jaypee Brothers

 


 

Contents

 

 

Page

01

Arterial System

3

02

Bones

22

03

Joints

34

04

Muscles

37

05

Nervous system

46

06

Miscellaneous

51

 


 

A. Arterial System


Aorta has four components viz

An

1. Ascending aorta

Ace

2. Arch of aorta

Trail

3. Thoracic aorta

Arrives

4. Abdominal aorta

1. Ascending aorta
A. Right coronary artery

Rarely

1. Right atrial

People

2. Posterior descending

Ride

3. Right marginal

Passenger

4. Preventricular

Train

5. Transverse

B. Left coronary artery

A

1. Anterior descending

Care

2.Circumflex

Less

3. Left marginal

Lady

4. Left atrial

Teacher

5. Terminal

2. Arch of aorta

I

A. Innominate

1. Right common carotid

2. Right subclavian

Like

B. Left common carotid 

Lemons

C. Left subclavian

Common Carotid Artery

1. External carotid

Some

a. Superior thyroid

High

Hyoid

Standard

Sternocleidomastoid

Schools

Superior laryngeal

Create

Cricothyroid

Many

Muscular

Genius

Glandular

Arrogant

b. Asending pharyngeal

People

Pharyngeal

Put

Palatine

Purse

Prevertebral

In

Inferior tympanic

Pocket

Posterior meningeal

Lady

c. Lingual

He

Hyoid

Distributed

Dorsal

Some

Sublingual

Pencils

Profunda linguae

Education

d. External maxillary (Facial)

A

Ascending palatine

Tall

Tonsillar

Girl

Glandular

Should

Submental

Marry

Muscular

In

Inferior labial

Lower

Lateral nasal

Age

Angular

Officer

e. Occipital

M

Muscular

S

Sternocleidomastoid

After

Auricular

M

Meningeal

D

Descending mastoid

Means

Medial terminal

Loss

Lateral terminal

Pricking

f. Posterior auricular

May

Muscular

Anyone

Auricular

Stay

Stylomstoid

On

Occipital

Please

Parotid

Senior

g. Superficial temporal

Turn

Transverse facial

And

Anterior articular

Meet

Middle temporal

Preity

Parotid

Zinta

Zygomatic orbital

From

Frontal

Park

Parietal

Avenue

Articular

Inspectors

h. Internal maxillary

My

i. Mandibular portion

Assistant

Anterior tympanic

Divisional

Deep auricular

Manager

Middle meningeal

Air

Accessory meningeal

India

Inferior alveolar

Party

ii. Pterygoid portion

Delhi

Deep temporal

Public

Pterigoid

Milk

Masseter

Booths

Buccinator

iii. Pterygo-palatine portion

Pakistani

Place

Posterior superior

And

Alveolar

Indian

Infraorbital

Dancers'

Descending palatine

Association

Artery of pterygoid canal

Playing

Pharyngeal

Skit

Sphenopalatine

2. Internal carotid

People

i. Petrous portion

Chartered

Corticotympanic

Accountants

Artery of pterygoid canal

Can

ii.Cavernous portion

Charge

Cavernous

Heavily;

Hypoglossal

Some

Semilunar

Assistants

Anterior meningeal

Often

Ophthalmic

Come

iii. Cerebral portion

Are

Anterior cerebral

Minimum

Middle cerebral

Price

Posterior communicating

Chargers

Choroid

Subclavian Artery

Very

1. Vertebral

a. Cervical

Share

Spinal

Market

Muscular

b.Cranial

M

Meningeal

P's

Posterior spinal

And

Anterior spinal

M

Medullary

P's

Posterior inferior

Coming

Cerebellar

Tall

2. Thyrocervical trunk

International

Inferior thyroid

Travel

Transverse scapular

Ticket

Tranverse cervical

Insurance

3. Internal mammary

Pick

Pericardiacophrenic

And

Anterior mediastinal

Try

Thymic

Pashmina

Pericardial

Shawls

Sternal

And

Anterior intercostal

Pure

Perforating

Material

Musculophrenic

Sarees

Superior epigastric

Claim

4. Costo-cervical trunk

Some

Superior intercostal

Decent

Deep cervical

Assistant

Aberrant

Subclavian artery continues as Axillary artery

Axillary artery

Heavy

1. Highest thoracic

Talented

2. Thoracoacromial

Pay

Pectoral

And

Acromial

Come

Clavicular

Down

Deltoid

Lovely

3. Lateral thoracic (External mammary)

Smart

4. Subcapsular

Sales

Scapular circumflex

Tax

Thoracodorsal

Personal

5. Posterior humeral circumflex

Most

Muscular

Apes

Articular

Never

Nutrient

Attack

Acromial

Assistant

6. Anterior humeral

My

Muscular

Big

Bicipital

Pen

Pectoral

Axillary artery continues as Brachial artery

 Brachial Artery

Police

1. Profunda brachii

Deltoid

Middle collateral

Radial collateral

Nutrient

Never

2. Nutrient

Make

3. Muscular

Second

4. Superior ulnar collateral

Information

5. Inferior ulnar collateral

Report

6. Radial : In forearm

Regional

Radial recurrent

Mutton

Muscular

Vendors

Volar radial carpal

Society

Superior volar

(Radial) : At wrist

Did

Dorsal radial carpal

Finally

First dorsal metacarpal

(Radial) : In hand

Publish

Princeps pollicis

Very

Volaris indicis radialis

Very

Volar metacarpal (3)

Purposeful

Perforating (3)

Research

Recurrent

Urgently

7. Ulnar : In forearm

A

Anterior ulnar recurrent

P

Posterior ulnar recurrent

C

Common interosseous

May

Muscular

(Ulnar) : At wrist

Develop

Dorsal carpal

Very

Volar carpal

(Ulnar) : In hand

Distressing

Deep volar

Stomachache

Superficial volar arch

 

Miscellaneous

3. Descending Thoracic Aorta

Very

Visceral

Please

Pericardial

Buy

Bronchial

Other

Oesophageal

Material

Mediastinal

Painful

Parietal

Indian

Intercostal (9 pairs)

Anterior ramus

Coming

Collateral Intercostal

Late

Lateral Cutaneous

Mr

Muscular

Montu

Mammary.

Posterior ramus

Some

Spinal branch

Members

Muscular branches

Coming

Cutaneous branches

Security

Subcostal

Posterior branch

Services

Superior phrenic

 4. Abdominal Aorta

Caesarean

A. Coeliac

Lone

1. Left gastric

Ozone

Oesophageal branches

Gas

Gastric branches

Constable

2. Common hepatic

Can't

Cystic (Proper hepatic)

Really

Right gastric

Guess

Gastroduodenal

Right Gastroepiploic 

Superior Pancreaticoduodenal

Supraduodenal 

Sleeping

3. Splenic

Please

Pancreatic magna

Leave

Left gastroepiploic

Some

Short gastric

Thing

Terminal splenic

 Section

B. Superior mesenteric

Ill

1. Inferior pancreatico-duodenal

Intentions

2. Intestinal

In

3. Ileo-colic 

Rosy's

4. Right colic

Mind

5. Middle colic

In

C. Inferior mesenteric

Light

1. Left colic

Shade

2. Sigmoid

Superb

3. Superior haemorrhoidal

Many

D. Middle suprarenal

Races

E. Renal

Injured

1. Inferior suprarenal

Cops

2. Capsular or perirenal

Under

3. Ureteric

Treatment

4. Terminal

Induces

F. Internal spermatic or ovarian

Irregular

G. Inferior phrenic

Many

1. Medial

Ladies

2. Lateral

Smartly

3. Superior suprarenal 

Handle

4. Hepatic

P

5. Pericardial

C

6. Caval (right side only)

O'

7. Oesophageal (left side only)

s

8. Splenic (left side only)

Late 

H. Lumbar (4 pairs)

Menstrual

I. Middle sacral 

Cycle

J. Common iliac - Anterior trunk

Some

1. Superior vesical

Universal

Urachal

Underwears

Ureteric

Very

Vesical

Delicate

Deferential

Medical

2. Middle vesical

Men

3. Middle haemorrhoidal

Ofen

4. Obturator

Invite

Iliac

Very

Vesical

Prominent

Pubic

And

Anterior terminal

Popular

Posterior terminal

Medical

Muscular

Advisers

Acetabular

Invest

5. Internal pudendal

Men

Muscular

Inside

Inferior haemorrhoidal

Push

Perineal

Upper

Urethral

Door

Deep artery of penis/clitoris

In

6. Inferior gluteal

My

Muscular

Very

Vesical

Caring

Coccygeal

Aunt

Anastomotic 

Arriving

Articular

Unique

7. Uterine

Ventures

8. Vaginal

Common iliac - Posterior trunk

In

1. Ilio-lumbar

Iliac

Lumbar 

Late

2. Lateral sacral

Sixties

3. Superior gluteal

Money

Muscular

In

Iliac

Safe

Superficial

Deposit

Deep

                                                Common iliac artery bifurcates into external iliac artery and internal iliac artery
 

External Iliac

I

1. Inferior epigastric

Continuing

a. Cutaneous

Medical

b. Muscular

Education

c. External spermatic

Planned

d. Pubic

Date

2. Deep iliac circumflex

a. Muscular

b. Cutaneous

My

3. Muscular

Girl

4. Glandular

External iliac continues as Femoral artery

Femoral Artery

Sardar

1. Superior epigastric

Christian

a. Cutaneous

Medical

b. Muscular

Hospital

c. Hepatic

Purchased

d. Peritoneal

X-Ray

e. Xiphoid

Plant

f. Phrenic

Santokh

2. Superficial iliac circumflex

Man

a. Muscular

In

b. Iliac

Casuals

c. Circumflex

Singh

3. Superficial external pudendal

Deputy

4. Deep external pudendal

Minister

5. Muscular

Paid

6. Profunda femoris

Many

a. Medial femoral circumflex

Ladies

b. Lateral femoral circumflex

Prefer

c. Perforating (3)

Men

d. Muscular

Homage

7. Highest genicular

Some

a. Saphenous

More

b. Muscular

People

c. Patellar

Arriving

d. Articular

Femoral artery continues as Popliteal artery

Popliteal Artery

Maharashtra

1. Muscular

State

2. Superior muscular

Second

3. Sural

Chief

4. Cutaneous

Minister

5. Medial superior genicular

Liked

6. Lateral superior genicular

Many

7. Middle genicular

More

8. Medial inferior genicular

Lakes

9. Lateral inferior genicular

And

10. Anterior tibial

A

a. Anterior tibial recurrent

Few

b. Fibular

People

c. Posterior tibial

May

d. Muscular

Agree

e. Anterior lateral malleolar

After

f. Anterior medial malleolar

Discussion

g. Dorsal pedis (continues as)

Current

Cutaneous

Literature

Lateral tarsal

Made

Medial tarsal

Available

Arcuate

For

First dorsal

Many

Metatarsal

Departments

Deep plantar

Ponds

11. Posterior tibial

People

a. Peroneal

Many

Muscular

Nervous

Nutrient to fibula

People

Perforating communicating

Live

Lateral calcaneal 

Lonely

Lateral posterior malleolar

Never

b. Nutrient to tibia

Mind;

c. Muscular

People

d. Posterior medial malleolar

Cheating

e. Communicating

Many

f. Medial calcaneal

Married

g. Medial plantar

Ladies

h. Lateral plantar

Relations
Arch of Aorta

A. Posterior and to the right

Taste

1. Trachea

Only

2. Oesophagus

Last

3. Left recurrent laryngeal nerve

Three

4. Thoracic duct

Varieties

5. Vertebral column

B. Anterior and to the left

Long

1. Lung and pleura

Live

2. Left phrenic

Lovely

3. Left vagus

Charming

4. Cardiac nerves

Star

5. Superior intercostal vein

C. Below

Low

1. Left bronchus

Rivers

2. Right pulmonary artery

Lose

3. Ligamentum arteriosum

Land

4. Left recurrent laryngeal nerve

Surface

5. Superficial cardiac plexus

D. Above

Lost

1. Left common carotid

Lighter

2. Left subclavian

In

3. Innominate

The

4. Thymus

Lane

5. Left innominate vein

Descending Thoracic Aorta
Begins   At left side of lower border of 4th thoracic vertebra as continuation of the arch of aorta
Ends      In front of the lower border of 12th dorsal vertebra  at the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm, by becoming abdominal aorta
Relations

A. Anterior (From above downwards) 

Rude

1. Root of left lung

Persons

2. Pericardium

Offen

3. Oesophagus (at lower part of thorax)

Decline

4. Diaphragm

B. Posterior

1. Vertebral column

2. Hemiazygos vein

C. Right

A

1. Azygos vein

Tall

2. Thoracic duct

Officer

3. Oesophagus (at upper part)

D. Left 

Pretty

1. Pleura

Lady

2. Left lung

Officer

3. Oesophagus (close to diaphragm)

Abdominal Aorta
Begins   At the aortic hiatus of the diaphragm, in front of the lower border of the body of the last thoracic vertebra
Ends     On the body of the fourth lumbar vertebra, commonly a little to the left of the middle line, 103 by dividing into the two common iliac arteries
Relations

A. Anterior

Little

Lesser omentum

School

Stomach

Boy

Branches of the celiac artery 

Broke

Branches of the celiac plexus

Some

Splenic vein

Parking

Pancreas

Lights

Left renal vein

During

Duodenum, inferior part

My

Mesentery

Absence

Aortic plexus

B. Posterior

All

Anterior longitudinal ligament

Indian

Intervertebral fibrocartilages

Lads

Left lumbar veins

Leaning

Lumbar vertebræ

C. Right

Anyone

Azygos vein

Can

Cisterna chyli

Try

Thoracic duct

Roaming

Right crus of the diaphragm

In

Inferior vena cava

Rome

Right celiac ganglion

D. Left

Long

Left crus of the diaphragm

Live

Left celiac ganglion

Devinder

Duodenum, ascending part

Singh

Small intestine

 Innominate Artery

A. Anterior

Then

1. Thymus

Let

2. Left innominate vein

Me

3. Manubrium

Show

4. Sternoclavicular joint

Some

5. Sternohyoid

Samples

6. Sternothyroid

B. Posterior

1. Trachea

2. Lung and pleura

3. Longus cervicis muscle

C. Right

1. Right innominate vein

2. Superior vena cava

D. Left

1. Left common carotid artery

2. Trachea

Common Carotid Artery

A. Anterior

Some

1. Sternohyoid

Senior

2. Sternothyroid

Lady

3. Left pleura - anterior portion

Left

4. Left brachiocephalic vein

Tennis

5. Thymus

B. Posterior

The

1. Trachea

Little

2. Left subclavian artery

Lad

3. Left edge of oesophagus

Licking

4. Left recurrent laryngeal nerve

Tomato

5. Thoracic duct

C. Right

Better

1. Brachiocephalic trunk

Travel

2. Trachea

In

3. Inferior thyroid veins

Train

4. Thymus

D. Left

Ladies

1. Left vagus nerve

Pay

2. Phrenic nerve

Little

3. Left pleura and lung

External Carotid Artery

A. Superficial

Should

1. Skin

Senior

2. Superficial facia

Doctor

3. Deep fascia

See

4. Sternocleidomastoid

Patient

5. Posterior belly of digastric

Suffering

6. Stylohyoid

From

7. Facial nerve

Jaundice?

8. Junction of superficial temporal and maxillary veins

B. Deep

World

1. Wall of pharynx

Sports

2. Superior laryngeal nerve

Association

3. Ascending pharyngeal artery

Is

4. Internal carotid artery

Searching

5. Styloid process

Some

6. Styloglossus

Smart

7. Stylopharyngeus

Good

8. Glossopharyngeal nerve

Polo

9. Pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve

Player

10. Parotid gland


B. Bones


Vertebral Column
Overview
1. The vertebral column is a flexuous and flexible column, formed of a series of bones called vertebræ.
2. The vertebrae are thirty-three in number

 

A.   Cervical

7

 

B.    Thoracic

12

 

C.    Lumbar

5

 

D.   Sacral

5

 

E.    Coccygeal

4

3. This number is sometimes increased by an additional vertebra in one region, or it may be diminished in one region, the deficiency often being supplied by an additional vertebra in another. The number of cervical vertebræ is, however, very rarely increased or diminished.
4. The vertebra¶ in the upper three regions of the column remain distinct throughout life, and are known as true or movable vertebra.
5. The vertebra¶ of the sacral and coccygeal regions, are termed false or fixed vertebra¶, because they are united with one another in the adult to form two bones - five forming the upper bone or sacrum, and four the terminal bone or coccyx.
6. With the exception of the first and second cervical, the true or movable vertebra¶ present certain common characteristics which are best studied by examining one from the middle of the thoracic region.



General Characteristics of a Vertebra

A typical vertebra consists of three parts
a. Anterior segment, the body
b. Posterior part, the vertebral or neural arch
c. Vertebral foramen.

The vertebral arch consists of
a. pedicles  - one pair
b. lamina¶ - one pair

The vertebral arch supports seven processes
a. articular - 4
b. transverse - 2
c. spinous - 1

When the vertebra¶ are articulated with each other the bodies form a strong pillar for the support of the head and trunk.
The vertebral foramina constitute a canal for the protection of the medulla spinalis (spinal cord).
Between every pair of vertebræ are two apertures, the intervertebral foramina, one on either side, for the transmission of the spinal nerves and vessels.

Body (corpus vertebrae)
1. The body is the largest part of a vertebra, and is more or less cylindrical in shape.
2. Its upper and lower surfaces are flattened and rough, and give attachment to the intervertebral fibrocartilages.
3. Each presents a rim around its circumference.
4. In front, the body is convex from side to side and concave from above downward.
5. Behind, it is flat from above downward and slightly concave from side to side.
6. Its anterior surface presents a few small apertures, for the passage of nutrient vessels.
7. On the posterior surface is a single large, irregular aperture, or occasionally more than one, for the exit of the basi-vertebral veins from the body of the vertebra.

Pedicles (radices arci vertebra)
1. The pedicles are two short, thick processes, which project backward, one on either side, from the upper part of the body, at the junction of its posterior and lateral surfaces.
2. The concavities above and below the pedicles are named the vertebral notches.
3. When the vertebra¶ are articulated, the notches of each contiguous pair of bones form the intervertebral foramina.

Lamina¶
1. The lamina¶ are two broad plates directed backward and medialward from the pedicles.
2. They fuse in the middle line posteriorly, and so complete the posterior boundary of the vertebral foramen.
3. Their upper borders and the lower parts of their anterior surfaces are rough for the attachment of the ligamenta flava.

Processes
Spinous Process. The spinous process is directed backward and downward from the junction of the lamina¶, and serves for the attachment of muscles and ligaments.

Articular Processes. The articular processes, two superior and two inferior, spring from the junctions of the pedicles and laminæ.
The superior project upward, and their articular surfaces are directed more or less backward
The inferior project downward, and their surfaces look more or less forward.
The articular surfaces are coated with hyaline cartilage.

Transverse Processes. The transverse processes, two in number, project one at either side from the point where the lamina joins the pedicle, between the superior and inferior articular processes.
They serve for the attachment of muscles and ligaments.

Structure of a Vertebra
1. The body is composed of cancellous tissue, covered by a thin coating of compact bone.
2. The latter is perforated by numerous orifices, some of large size for the passage of vessels.
3. The interior of the bone is traversed by one or two large canals, for the reception of veins, which converge toward a single large, irregular aperture, or several small apertures, at the posterior part of the body.
4. The thin bony lamellæ of the cancellous tissue are more pronounced in lines perpendicular to the upper and lower surfaces and are developed in response to greater pressure in this direction.
5. The arch and processes projecting from it have thick coverings of compact tissue.

Cervical Vertebrae

1. Cervical vertebræ are the smallest of the true vertebræ, and can be readily distinguished from those of the thoracic or lumbar regions by the presence of a foramen in each transverse process.
2. The first, second, and seventh present exceptional features and must be separately described; the following characteristics are common to the remaining four.

Body
1. Body is small, and broader from side to side than from before backward.
2. The anterior and posterior surfaces are flattened and of equal depth; the former is placed on a lower level than the latter
3. Inferior border is prolonged downward, so as to overlap the upper and forepart of the vertebra below.
4. The upper surface is concave transversely, and presents a projecting lip on either side.
5. The lower surface is concave from before backward, convex from side to side, and presents laterally shallow concavities which receive the corresponding projecting lips of the subjacent vertebra.

Pedicles
Pedicles are directed lateralward and backward, and are attached to the body midway between its upper and lower borders, so that the superior vertebral notch is as deep as the inferior, but it is, at the same time, narrower.

Laminae
Laminae are narrow, and thinner above than below

Vertebral foramen
Vertebral foramen is large, and of a triangular form.

Spinous processes
1. Spinous process is short and bifid, the two divisions being often of unequal size.
2. The superior and inferior articular processes on either side are fused to form an articular pillar, which projects lateralward from the junction of the pedicle and lamina.
3. The articular facets are flat and of an oval form.
4. The superior look backward, upward, and slightly medialward
5. The inferior forward, downward, and slightly lateralward.
6. The transverse processes are each pierced by the foramen transversarium, which, in the upper six vertebræ, gives passage to the vertebral artery and vein and a plexus of sympathetic nerves.
7. Each process consists of an anterior and a posterior part.
8. The anterior portion is the homologue of the rib in the thoracic region, and is therefore named the costal process or costal element.
9. It arises from the side of the body, is directed lateralward in front of the foramen, and ends in a tubercle, the anterior tubercle.
10. The posterior part, the true transverse process, springs from the vertebral arch behind the foramen, and is directed forward and lateralward.
11. It ends in a flattened vertical tubercle, the posterior tubercle.
12. These two parts are joined, outside the foramen, by a bar of bone which exhibits a deep sulcus on its upper surface for the passage of the corresponding spinal nerve.

First Cervical Vertebra
1. The first cervical vertebra is named the atlas because it supports the globe of the head.
2. Its chief peculiarity is that it has no body, and this is due to the fact that the body of the atlas has fused with that of the next vertebra.
3. Its other peculiarities are that it has no spinous process, is ring-like, and consists of an anterior and a posterior arch and two lateral masses.
4. The anterior arch forms about one-fifth of the ring.
5. Its anterior surface is convex, and presents at its center the anterior tubercle for the attachment of the Longus colli muscles
6. Posteriorly it is concave, and marked by a smooth, oval or circular facet (fovea dentis), for articulation with the odontoid process (dens) of the axis.
7. The upper and lower borders respectively give attachment to the anterior atlantooccipital membrane and the anterior atlantoaxial ligament.
8. The former connects it with the occipital bone above, and the latter with the axis below.
9. The posterior arch forms about two-fifths of the circumference of the ring.
10. It ends behind in the posterior tubercle, which is the rudiment of a spinous process and gives origin to the Recti capitis posteriores minores.
11. The diminutive size of this process prevents any interference with the movements between the atlas and the skull.
12. The posterior part of the arch presents above and behind a rounded edge for the attachment of the posterior atlantoöccipital membrane.
13. Immediately behind each superior articular process is a groove (sulcus arteriæ vertebralis), sometimes converted into a foramen by a delicate bony spiculum which arches backward from the posterior end of the superior articular process.
14. This groove represents the superior vertebral notch, and serves for the transmission of the vertebral artery, which, after ascending through the foramen in the transverse process, winds around the lateral mass in a direction backward and medialward.
15. It also transmits the suboccipital (first spinal) nerve.
16. On the under surface of the posterior arch, behind the articular facets, are two shallow grooves, the inferior vertebral notches.
17. The lower border gives attachment to the posterior atlantoaxial ligament, which connects it with the axis.
18. The lateral masses are the most bulky and solid parts of the atlas, in order to support the weight of the head.
19. Each carries two articular facets, a superior and an inferior.
20. The superior facets are of large size, oval, concave, and approach each other in front, but diverge behind: they are directed upward, medialward, and a little backward.
21. Each forms a cup for the corresponding condyle of the occipital bone.
22. The superior facets are admirably adapted to the nodding movements of the head.
23. Not infrequently they are partially subdivided by indentations which encroach upon their margins.
24. The inferior articular facets are circular in form, flattened or slightly convex and directed downward and medialward, articulating with the axis, and permitting the rotatory movements of the head.
25. Just below the medial margin of each superior facet is a small tubercle, for the attachment of the transverse atlantal ligament which stretches across the ring of the atlas.
26. The tubercle divides the vertebral foramen into two unequal parts
a. Anterior or smaller receiving the odontoid process of the axis
b. Posterior transmitting the medulla spinalis and its membranes.
27. This part of the vertebral canal is of considerable size, much greater than is required for the accommodation of the medulla spinalis, and hence lateral displacement of the atlas may occur without compression of this structure.
28. The transverse processes are large; they project lateralward and downward from the lateral masses, and serve for the attachment of muscles which assist in rotating the head.
29. They are long, and their anterior and posterior tubercles are fused into one mass; the foramen transversarium is directed from below, upward and backward.

Second Cervical Vertebra
1. The second cervical vertebra is named the epistropheus or axis because it forms the pivot upon which the first vertebra, carrying the head, rotates.
2. The most distinctive characteristic of this bone is the strong odontoid process which rises perpendicularly from the upper surface of the body.

Body
1. The body is deeper in front than behind, and prolonged downward anteriorly so as to overlap the upper and fore part of the third vertebra.
2. It presents in front a median longitudinal ridge, separating two lateral depressions for the attachment of the Longus colli muscles.
3. Its under surface is concave from before backward and covex from side to side.
4. The dens or odontoid process exhibits a slight constriction or neck, where it joins the body.
5. On its anterior surface is an oval or nearly circular facet for articulation with that on the anterior arch of the atlas.
6. On the back of the neck, and frequently extending on to its lateral surfaces, is a shallow groove for the transverse atlantal ligament which retains the process in position.
7. The apex is pointed, and gives attachment to the apical odontoid ligament; below the apex the process is somewhat enlarged, and presents on either side a rough impression for the attachment of the alar ligament; these ligaments connect the process to the occipital bone.
8. The internal structure of the odontoid process is more compact than that of the body.

Pedicles
1. The pedicles are broad and strong, especially in front, where they coalesce with the sides of the body and the root of the odontoid process.
2. They are covered above by the superior articular surfaces.

Laminae
The laminæ are thick and strong, and the vertebral foramen large, but smaller than that of the atlas.

Transverse processes
1. The transverse processes are very small, and each ends in a single tubercle.
2, Each is perforated by the foramen transversarium, which is directed obliquely upward and lateralward.
3. The superior articular surfaces are round, slightly convex, directed upward and lateralward, and are supported on the body, pedicles, and transverse processes.
4. The inferior articular surfaces have the same direction as those of the other cervical vertebræ.
5. The superior vertebral notches are very shallow, and lie behind the articular processes.
6. The inferior lie in front of the articular processes, as in the other cervical vertebræ.
7. The spinous process is large, very strong, deeply channelled on its under surface, and presents a bifid, tuberculated extremity.

Seventh Cervical Vertebra
1. The most distinctive characteristic of this vertebra is the existence of a long and prominent spinous process, hence the name vertebra prominens.
2. This process is thick, nearly horizontal in direction, not bifurcated, but terminating in a tubercle to which the lower end of the ligamentum nuchæ is attached.
3. The transverse processes are of considerable size.
4. Their posterior roots are large and prominent.
5. Anterior are small and faintly marked.
6. The upper surface of each has usually a shallow sulcus for the eighth spinal nerve, and its extremity seldom presents more than a trace of bifurcation.
7. The foramen transversarium may be as large as that in the other cervical vertebræ, but is generally smaller on one or both sides; occasionally it is double, sometimes it is absent.
8. On the left side it occasionally gives passage to the vertebral artery; more frequently the vertebral vein traverses it on both sides; but the usual arrangement is for both artery and vein to pass in front of the transverse process, and not through the foramen.
9. Sometimes the anterior root of the transverse process attains a large size and exists as a separate bone, which is known as a cervical rib.
10. The costal element of a cervical vertebra not only includes the portion which springs from the side of the body, but the anterior and posterior tubercles and the bar of bone which connects them




Bones of base of the skull

Anterior cranial fossa

Foreign

Frontal

Equity

Ethmoid

Should

Sphenoid

Middle cranial fossa

See

Sphenoid

Tough

Temporal

Posterior cranial fossa

Opposition

Occipital

Muscle attachments of first rib

Origins

S

Serratus anterior

S

Subclavius

Insertions

S

Scalenus medius

S

Scalenus anterior

Muscle attachments of clavicle
 

A. Origins

Delhi

1. Deltoid

Public

2. Pectoralis major

School

3. Sternocleidomastoid

Staff

4. Sternohyoid

B. Insertions

Trains

1. Trapezius

Students

2. Subclavius

http://www.lduhtrp.net/image-858736-10281551Muscle attachments of humerus

A. Origins

To

1. Triceps (medial and lateral heads)

Be

2. Brachialis

Better

3. Brachioradialis

Examinee

4. Extensor carpi radialis longus

Copy

5. Common extensor origin

Competent

6. Common flexor origin

Person

7. Pronator teres

Ahead

8. Anconeus

B. Insertion

Some

1. Supraspinatus

Senior

2. Subscapularis

Income

3. Infraspinatus

Tax

4. Teres minor

People

5. Pectoralis major

Leaving

6. Latissimus dorsi

To

7. Teres major

Detect

8. Deltoid

Culprits

9. Coracobrachialis

http://www.lduhtrp.net/image-858736-10281551Muscle attachments of radius
 

A. Origins

Fried

1. Flexor digitorum superficialis

Fish

2. Flexor pollicis longus

And

3. Abductor pollicis longus

Eggs

4. Extensor pollicis brevis

B. Insertions

Some

1. Supinator

Bad

2. Biceps

People

3. Pronator teres

Preach

4. Pronator quadratus

Bad

5. Brachioradialis

Muscle attachments of ulna
 

A. Origins

Family

1. Flexor digitorum

Planning

2. Pronator teres (ulnar)

For

3. Flexor pollicicx longus (occasional head) 

Small

4. Supinator

Families;

5. Flexor digitorum profundus

An

6. Abductor pollicis longus

Extremely

7. Extensor pollicis longus

Essential

8. Extensor indicis

Proposal

9. Posterior border with aponeurosis common to :-

Every

a. Extensor carpi ulnaris

Fault

b. Flexor carpi ulnaris

Fixed

c. Flexor digitorum profundus

B. Insertions

T

1. Triceps

A

2. Anconeus

B

3. Brachialis

Carpal bones

Some

1. Scaphoid

Ladies

2. Lunate

Take

3. Triquetral

Pains

4. Pisiform

To

5. Trapezium

Train

6. Trapezoid

Children

7. Capitate

Heavily

8. Hamate

Muscle attachments of femur

A. Origins

Very

1. Vastus radialis

Very

2. Vastus intermedius

Very

3. Vastus medialis

Big

4. Biceps femoris (short head)

Grand

5. Gastrocnemius

Palace

6. Plantaris

B. Insertions

Guys

1. Gluteus medius

Gals

2. Gluteus minimus

Please

3. Piriformis

Open

4. Obturator externus

Old

5. Obturator internus

Question

6. Quadratus femoris

Paper

7. Psoas major

Guys

8. Gemellus superior

Gals

9. Gemellus inferior

Always

10. Adductor magnus

In

11. Iliacus

Great

12. Gluteus maximum

Problem

13. Pectineus

Answering

14. Adductor brevis

Anything

15. Adductor longus

http://www.lduhtrp.net/image-858736-10281551Muscle attachments of tibia

A. Origins

Please

1. Peroneus longus

Engage

2. Extensor digitorum longus

The

3. Tibialis anterior

Tall

4. Tibialis posterior

Slim

5. Soleus

Girl

6. Gastrocnemius

B. Insertions

Smart

1. Semimembranous

Boys

2. Biceps femoris

Smart

3. Sartorius

Girls

4. Gracilis

Smart

5. Semitendinosus

Parents

6. Popliteus

Muscle attachments of fibula

A. Origins 

Party

1. Peroneus Longus 

People

2. Peroneus Brevis 

Sending

3. Soleus 

Extremely

4. Extensor Digitorum Longus 

Elegant

5. Extensor Hallicis Longus 

Tall

6. Tibialis Posterior

Frame

7. Flexor hallucis longus

http://www.lduhtrp.net/image-858736-10281551Tarsal bones
 

Two

1. Talus

Carbon

2. Calcaneus

Copies

3. Cuneiform (medial)

Can

4. Cuneiform (intermediate)

Come

5. Cuneiform (lateral)

Comparatively

6. Cuboid

Neat

7. Navicular


C. Joints


Muscle producing movement in temporomandibular joint

Depression

Doing

Digastric

Me

Mylohoid

Great

Geniohyoid

Loss

Lateral pterygoid

Elevation

Man

Masseter

To

Temporal

Man

Medial pterygoid

Protrusion

My

Medial pterygoid

Love

Lateral pterygoid

Retraction

Temporal (Posterior fibres)

Lateral movements

My

Medial pterygoid

Love

Lateral pterygoid

Ligaments of vertebral arches

Last

1. Ligamenta flava

Important

2. Intertransverse

Station

3. Supraspinatus

In

4. Infraspinatus

London

5. Ligamentum nuchae

http://www.lduhtrp.net/image-858736-10281551Muscle producing movements in shoulder joint

A. Flexion

Please

1. Pectoralis major (clavicular part)

Do

2. Deltoid (anterior fibres)

Come

3. Coracobrachialis

Back

4. Biceps brachii

B. Extension

Delhi

1. Deltoid (Posterior fibres)

To

2. Teres major

Lahore

3. Latissimus dorsi

Passengers

4. Pectoralis major (sternocostal part) 

C. Abduction

Do

1. Deltoid

Some

2. Subscapularis

Inmates

3. Infraspinatus

Take

4. Teres minor

Smack?

5. Supraspinatus

D. Adduction

People

1.Pectoralis major

Leave

2. Latissimus dorsi

To

3. Teres major

Come

4. Coracobrachialis

Back

5. Biceps brachii

Trained

6. Triceps (long head)

E. Medial rotation

People

1. Pectoralis major

Don't

2. Deltoid (anterior fibres)

Live

3. Latissimus dorsi

To

4. Teres major

Suffer

5. Subscapularis

F. Lateral rotation

I

1. Infraspinatus

Did

2. Deltoid (posterior fibres)

That

3. Teres minor

http://www.lduhtrp.net/image-858736-10281551Muscle producing movements in knee joint

A. Flexion

Big

1. Biceps femoris

Shops

2. Semitendinosus

Selling

3. Semimembranosus

Good

4. Gracilis

Stuff

5. Sartorius

Paid

6. Popliteus

Great

7. Gastrocnemius

Prices

8. Plantaris

B. Extension

1. Quadriceps femoris

2. Tensor fasciae latae

Muscle producing rotation of flexed leg
 

A. Medial rotation

Please

1. Popliteus

Show

2. Semimembranosus

Some

3. Semitendinosus

Special

4. Sartorius

Gifts

5. Gracilis

B. Lateral rotation

- Biceps femoris


D. Musculal System


Muscles of the Head
Muscles of Facial Expression

A. Muscles of scalp

Operation

1. Occipitofrontalis

Theatre

2. Temporoparietalis

B. Muscles of eyelids

Line

1. Levator palpebrae superioris

Of

2. Orbicularis oculi

Control

3. Corrugator supercilli

C. Muscles of nose

Post

1. Procerus

Natal

2. Nasalis

Depression

3. Depressor septi

D. Muscles of mouth

Little

1. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi

Lovely

2. Levator labii superioris

Babes

3. Buccinator

Like

4. Levator anguli oris

Many

5. Zygomatic major

More

6. Zygomatic minor

Domestic

7. Depressor labii inferioris

Dogs

8. Depressor anguli oris

On

9. Orbicularis oris

Merry

10. Mentalis

Rounds

11. Risorius

http://www.lduhtrp.net/image-858736-10281551Muscles of Mastication

Most

1. Masseter

Teachers

2. Temporalis

Like

3. Lateral pterygoid

Me

4. Medial pterygoid

Muscles of the neck (Anterolateral region)

Some

A. Superficial and lateral cervical

Please

1. Platysma

Take

2. Trapezius

Santro

3. Sternocleidomastoid

Simply

B. Sternohyoid and infrahyoid

a. Suprahyoid

Dil

1. Digastric

Se

2. Stylohyoid

Milo

3. Mylohoid

Gale

4. Goniohyoid

b. Infrahoid

Some

1. Sternohyoid

Students

2. Sternothyroid

Tasting

3. Thyrohyoid

Oranges

4. Omohyoid

Arrive

C. Anterior vertebral

Lone

1. Longus coli

Lady

2. Longus capitis

Running

3. Rectus capitis superioris

Racket

4. Rectus capitis lateralis

Late

D. Lateral vertebral

Some

1. Scalenous anterior

Samples

2. Scalenous medius

Stolen

3. Scalenous posterior

http://www.lduhtrp.net/image-858736-10281551Deep muscles of the back

Senior

1. Splenius capitis

Engineers

2. Erector spinae

Invited

3. Interspinales

In

4. Intertransversarii

States

5. Splenius cervices

To

6. Transversospinalis

See

7. Semispinalis

Machines

8. Multifidus

Running

9. Rotatores

Suboccipital Muscles

Rail

1. Rectus capitis posterior major

Reservation

2. Rectus capitis posterior minor

Office

3. Obliquus capitis inferior

Open

4. Obliquus capitis superior

Muscles of the Thorax

India

1. Intercostales externi

Interested

2. Intercostale interni

In

3. Interspinales

Selling

4. Subcostales

Low

5. Levatores costorum

Speed

6. Serratus posterior superior

Semi

7. Serratus posterior inferior

Damaged

8. Diaphragm

Trams

9. Transversus thoracis

Muscles of the Abdomen

A. Anterolateral muscles

Old

1. Obliquus externus

Officers

2. Obliquus internus

Can

3. Cremaster

Take

4. Transversus

Remaining

5. Rectus

Projects

6. Pyramidalis

B. Posterior muscles

Pious

1. Psoas major

Preachings

2. Psoas minor

In

3. Iliacus

Quran

4. Quaratus lumborum

Muscles of the Pelvis

Old

1. Obturator internus

People

2. Piriformis

Lack

3. Levator ani

Confidence

4. Coccygeus

Muscles of the Perineum

A. Anal region

- Superior ani externus

B. Urogenital region

T

1. Transversus perinei superficialis

B

2. Bulbospongiosus

In

3. Ischiocavernosus

Terminal

4. Transversus perinei profundus

Stages

5. Sphincter urethrae

http://www.lduhtrp.net/image-858736-10281551Muscles of the Upper Limb

A. Muscles connecting upper limb with vertebral column

The

1. Trapezius

Late

2. Latissimus dorsi

Runner

3. Rhomboideus major

Reaches

4. Rhomboideus minor

Late

5. Levator scapulae

B. Muscles connecting upper limb with anterior and lateral thoracic walls

Please

1. Pectoralis major

Pack

2. Pectoralis minor

Six

3. Subclavious

Shirts

4. Serratus anterior

C. Muscles of the shoulder

Done

1. Deltoid

Some

2. Subscapularis

Saving

3. Supraspinatus

In

4. Infraspinatus

The

5. Teres minor

Trade

6. Teres major

D. Muscles of the upper arm 

Can

1. Coracobrachialis

Buy

2. Biceps brachii

Beautiful

3. Brachialis

Things

4. Triceps

E. Muscles of the forearm

a. Anerior antebrachial muscles

i.Superficial group

Please

1. Pronator teres

Find

2. Flexor carpi radialis

Place

3. Palmaris longus

For

4. Flexor carpi ulnaris

Family

5. Flexor digitorum superficialis

ii. Deep group

Free

1. Flexor digitorum profundus

For

2. Flexor qollis longus

Poor

3. Pronator quadratus

b. Posterior antebrachial muscles

i.Superficial group

Boiling

1. Brachioradialis

2. External carpi radialis longus

3. External carpi radialis brevis

(5) Eggs

4. External digitorum

5. External digiti minimi

6.External carpi ulnaris

Again

7. Anconeus

ii. Deep group

Suspend

1. Supinator

All

2. Abductor pollicis longus

3. Extensor pollicis brevis

(3) Engineers

4. Extensor pollicis longus

5. Extensor indicis

F. Muscles of hand

a. Lateral muscles of palm

An

1. Abductor pollicis brevis 

Offer

2. Opponens pollicis

For

3. Flexor pollicis brevis

All

4. Adductor pollicis

b. Medial muscles of palm

Purchase

5. Palmaris brevis

Agents

6. Abductor digiti minimi

For

7. Flexor digiti minimi brevis

Old

8. Opponens digiti minimi

c. Intermediate muscles

Lock

9. Lumbricals (4)

Industries

10. Interossei

Dorsal inerossei

Palmar interossei

http://www.lduhtrp.net/image-858736-10281551Muscles of the Lower Limb

A. Muscles of the iliac region

People

1. Psoas major

Praise

2. Psoas minor

India

3. Iliacus

B. Muscles of the thigh

a. Anterior femoral muscles

Two

1. Tensor fasciae latae

Separate

2. Sartorius

Ques

3. Quadriceps femoris

Really

i. Rectus femoris

Very

ii. Vastus lateralis

Vague

iii. Vastus medialis

Version

iv. Vastus intermedius

Arranged

4. Articularis genu

b. Medial femoral muscles

Great

1. Gracilis

People

2. Pectineus

Are

3. Adductor longus

Always

4. Adductor brevis

Admired

5. Adductor magnus

c. Gluteal muscles

German

1. Gluteus maximus

Graduate

2. Gluteus medius

Girls

3. Gluteus minimus

Prefer

4. Piriformis

Only

5. Obturator internus

German

6. Gemellus superior

Graduate

7. Gemellus inferior

Query

8. Quadratus femoris

Officers

9. Quadratus externus

d. Posterior femoral muscles

Blind

1. Biceps femoris

Students

2. Semitendinosus

Society

3. Semimembranosus

C. Muscles of the leg

a. Anterior crural muscles

To

1. Tibialis anterior

Enjoy

2. Extensor hallucis longus

Enter

3. Extensor digitorum longus

Please

4. Peroneous tertius

b. Lateral crural muscles

Private

1. Peroneus longus

Practice

2. Peroneus brevis

c. Posterior crural muscles

i. Superficial group

Great

1. Gastrocnemius

Sounding

2. Soleus

Plan

3. Plantaris

ii. Deep group

Perhaps

1. Popliteus

Four

2. Flexor hallucis longus

Feet

3. Flexor digitorum longus

Tall

4. Tibialis posterior

D. Muscles of the foot

i. Dorsal muscle

- Extensor digitorum brevis

ii. Plantar : First layer

All

1. Abductor hallucis

Fat

2. Flexor digitorum brevis

And

3. Abductor digiti minimi

Plantar : Second layer

Fair

1. Flexor digitorium accessorius

Love

2. Lumbricals

Plantar : Third layer

Fat

1. Flexor hallucis brevis

And

2. Adductor hallucis

Fair

3. Flexor digiti minimi brevis

Plantar : Fourth layer

Indeed

- Interossei


E. Nervous System


Cranial Nerves

One

1. Olfactory

of

2. Optic

Our

3. Oculomotor

Teachers

4. Trochlear

Trusted

5. Trigeminal

A

6. Abducens

Fellow

7. Facial

And

8. Auditory

Gained

9. Glossopharyngeal

Vigour

10. Vagus

And

11. Accessory

Health

12. Hypoglossal

Trigeminal Nerve

A. Ophthalmic nerve

To

1. Tentorial

Look

2. Lacrimal

For

3. Frontal

Some

4. Supratrochlear

New

5. Nasociliary

Candidates

6. Communicating to :-

Oman

a. Occulomotor

Travel

b. Trochlear

Agency

c. Abducens

B. Maxillary nerve

My

1. Middle meningeal

Pretty

2. Posterior superior alveolar 

Zoology

3. Zygomatic

Instructor

4. Infraorbital

C. Mandibular nerve

Some

1. Spinosus

Indians

2. Internal pterygoid

Are

3. Auriculotemporal

Living

4. Lingual

In 

5. Inferior alveolar

Moscow

6. Muscular to :-

Every

a. External pterigoid

Two

b. Temporal

Months

c. Masseter

Fascial nerve

With the facial canal

Nerve to the Stapedius muscle

Chorda tympani

At its exit from the stylomastoid foramen

Public

Posterior auricular

Distributor

Digastric

System

Stylohyoid

On the face

Talkative

Temporal

Zeenat

Zygomatic

Bakko

Buccal

Mat

Mandibular

Chalo

Cervical

Glossopharyngeal nerve

Many

1. Muscular

People

2. Pharyngeal

Try

3. Tonsillar

Lawn

4. Lingual

Tennis

5. Tympanic

Vagus nerve

Many

A. Motor

People

1. Pharyngeal

Like

2. Laryngeal

People

B. Parasympathetic

Character

1. Cardiac

Of

2. Oesophageal

An

3. Abdominal

Selling

C. Somatic sensory

Aged

1. Auricular

Man

2. Meningeal

Vans

D. Visceral sensory

Praying

1. Pharyngeal

Lady

2. Laryngeal

To

3. Thoracic 

Accede

4. Abdominal

Brachial Plexus

A. Supraclavicular branches

a. From roots

Try

1. To scaleni and longus coli

To

2. To join phrenic nerve

Demand

3. Dorsal scapular

Lesser

4. Long thoracic

b. From trunks

1. Nerve to subclavius

2. Suprascapular

B. Infraclavicular branches

a. Lateral cord

Let

1. Lateral pectoral

Me

2. Musculocutaneous

Leave

3. Lateral root of median

b. Medial cord

My

1. Medial pectoral

Maid

2. Medial cutaneous of forearm

May

3. Medial cutaneous of arm

Meet

4. Medial root of median

U

5. Ulnar

c. Posterior cord

Uncle

1. Upper subscapular

Loves

2. Lower subscapular

And

3. Axillary

Trains

4. Thoracodorsal

Rosy

5. Radial

http://www.lduhtrp.net/image-858736-10281551Lumbar Plexus

My

1. Muscular

Idea

2. Ileohypogastric

Is

3. Ileoinguinal

Generally

4. Genitofemoral

Liked

5. Lateral cutaneous of thigh

For 

6. Femoral

One

7. Obturator

Account

8. Accessory obturator

http://www.lduhtrp.net/image-858736-10281551Sacral Plexus
 

Never

1. Nerves to :-

a. Quadratus femoris and Gemellus inferior

b. Obturator internus and Gemellus superior

c. Piriformis

Stay

2. Superior gluteal

In

3. Inferior gluteal

Police

4. Posterior femoral cutaneous

Station;

5. Sciatic

Police

6. Perforating cutaneous

People

7. Pudendal

Never

8. Nerves to

Late

a. Levator ani

Comers

b. Coccygeus

Suffer

c. Sphincter

Polite

9. Pelvic splanchnics

 


F. Miscellaneous


Superior orbital fissure
Boundaries

Medial

Body of sphenoid bone

Superior

Lesser wing of sphenoid bone

Inferior

Medial margin of orbital surface of greater wing of sphenoid bone

Contents

A. To the orbit

Of

1. Oculomotor nerve

Three

2. Trochlear nerve

Available

3. Abducens nerve

Tutors

4. Three branches of ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve

Only

5. Orbital branch of middle meningeal artery

First

6. Filaments from internal carotid plexus of the sympathetic

B. To the cranial cavity

Really

7. Recurrent meningeal branch of lacrimal artery

Oriented

8. Ophthalmic veins

Venous sinuses of Duramater
 

A. Posterior superior group

She

1. Superior sagittal

Invited

2. Inferior sagittal

Sister

3. Straight

To

4. Transverse (2)

Same

5. Sigmoid (2)

Opera

6. Occipital

B. Antero-inferior group

Calories

1. Cavernous

Sufficient

2. Sphenoparietal

In

3. Intercavernous

Some

4. Superior petrosal

Indian

5. Inferior petrosal

Baby

6. Basilar

Meals

7. Middle meningeal veins

Structures passing through cavernous sinus
 

I

1. Internal carotid artery

Save

2. Sypathetic plexus

An

3. Abducens nerve

Orphan

4. Oculomotor nerve

Too

5. Trochlear nerve

Often

6. Ophthalmic and maxillary division of trigeminal

Greater sciatic foramen
 Boundaries

In front and above : Greater sciatic notch
Behind : Sacrotuberous ligament
Below :  1. Sacrospinous ligament
               2. Spine of ischium

Transmits

Some

1. Superior gluteal vessels and nerve

Persons

2. Piriformis muscle

In

3. Inferior gluteal vessels and nerve

Indian

4. Inferior pudendal vessels

Police

5. Pudendal nerve

Should 

6. Sciatic nerve

Possess

7. Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve

Nerves

8. Nerves to obturator internus and quadratus

Lesser sciatic foramen
 
Boundaries

Front : Body of the ischium
Above : 1. Body of the ischium
             2. Sacrospinous ligament
Behind : Sacrotuberous ligament

Transmits

Travelled

1. Tendon of obturator internus

Never

2. Nerve to obturator internus

In

3. Internal pudendal vessels

Plane

4. Pudendal nerve

Femoral triangle
 
Boundaries

Lateral : Medial margin of sartorius
Medial : Medial margin of adductor longus
Above : Inguinal ligament
Floor : 1. Iliacus
           2. Psoas major
           3. Pectineus
           4. Adductor longus

Contains

Fore

1. Femoral vein

Fathers

2. Femoral nerve

Far

3. Femoral nerve

From

4. Fat

Land

5. Lymph nodes

Anterior triangle of neck
 
Boundaries

Anterior : Anterior median line of the neck
Posterior : Anterior margin of sternocleidomastoid
Base : 1. Base of the mandible
           2. Line from angle to mandible to mastoid process
Apex : Sternum

Subdivisions

My

Muscular triangle

Cute

Carotid triangle

Dog

Digastric triangle

Standing

Submental triangle

Carotid triangle
 
Boundaries

Behind : Sternocleidomastoid
Front and below : Omohyoid (superior belly)
Above : 1. Stylohyoid
              2. Digastric (posterior belly)

Superficial

Senior

Skin

Superintendent

Superficial fascia

Police

Platysma

Denies

Deep fascia

Bribe

Branches of facial and cutaneous cervical nerves

Floor

Too

Thyrohyoid

High

Hypoglossus

Price

Pharyngeal constrictor muscle (inferior and middle)

Contents

A. Arteries

Can

1. Common carotid artery

Every

2. External carotid artery

Indian

3. Internal carotid artery

Spend

4. Superior thyroid artery

Little

5. Lingual artery

Amount?

6. Ascending pharyngeal artery

B. Veins

Seat

1. Superior thyroid vein

Left

2. Lingual vein

For

3. Facial vein

An

4. Ascending pharyngeal vein

Oldman

5. Occipital vein

C. Nerves

He

1. Hypoglossal nerve

Is

2. Internal laryngeal nerve

Energetic

3. External laryngeal nerve

Posterior triangle of neck
 
Boundaries

Front : Sternocleidomastoid
Behind : Anterior margin of trapezius
Base : Middle one-third of the clavicle
Apex : Occipital bone between the attachment of sternocleidomastoid and trapezius

Subdivisions

Occipital triangle

Supraclavicular triangle