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Dr K Chaudhry

DoctorKC's
Anatomy Made Easy 
With Mnemonics

by
Saksham Chaudhry


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Introduction

Osteology

Muscular System

Arthrology

Cardio Vascular System

Respiratory System

Digestive System

Genito-Urinary System

Endocrine System

Nervous System

Special Sensory Organs

Lymphatic System

Surface Anatomy

Cross Sectional Anatomy

Histology

General Embryology

Systemic Embryology

Human Genetics

AIIMS Syllabus

 

Chapter 2

Osteology


 


 

 

 

 

Vendors/Advertisers/Merchants at a glance

Chapter 2. Osteology

Bones may be classified according to shape: 


 
 

Ladies

Long

Special

Short

Finds

Flat

Inmates

Irregular.

Long bones

Long bones are those in which the length exceeds the breadth and thickness. They include : 
 
 

C

Clavicle

H

Humerus

R

Radius

U

Ulna

F

Femur

T

Tibia

F

Fibula

O

Others

Metacarpals

Metatarsals

Phalanges

Each long bone has 

(i)Shaft or diaphysis 

(ii)Epiphyses. Two ends or extremities, which are usually articular; wider than the shaft 

The epiphyses of a growing bone are either entirely cartilaginous. If epiphysial ossification has begun, epiphyses are separated from the shaft by cartilaginous epiphysial plates (discs). 

Metaphysis.  The part of the shaft adjacent to an epiphysial disc, with the growth zone and newly formed bone. In the adult, the caritlagenous epiphyseal plate disappears and the bony tissue of the metaphysis and of the epiphysis is continuous. 

Medullary (marrow) cavity. A tube of compact bone (compacta) - the shaft of a long bone (diaphysis). 

Medullary cavity contains either red (blood-forming) or yellow (fatty) marrow, or combinations of both. 

The cavity of the epiphysis and metaphysis contains irregular, anastomosing bars or trabeculae, which form what is known as spongy or cancellous bone. 

The spaces between the trabeculae are filled with marrow. 

The bone on the articular surfaces of the ends is covered by cartilage, which is usually hyaline. 

Periosteum. A connective tissue sheath surrounding the shaft of a long bone. 

Periosteum is composed of :- 

(i)A tough, outer fibrous layer, which acts as a limiting membrane 

(ii)An inner, more cellular osteogenic layer. 

Endosteum . A thin, cellular layer lining the inner surface of compact bone. 

At the ends of the bone the periosteum is continuous with the joint capsule, but it does not cover the articular cartilage. 

Periosteum serves for the attachment of muscles and tendons to bone. 

Short bones

Short bones occur in the hands and feet and consist of spongy bone and marrow enclosed by a thin layer of compact bone. 

They are surrounded by periosteum, except on their articular surfaces. 

Sesamoid bones

Sesamoid bones are a type of short bone embedded within tendons or joint capsules and these occur mainly in the hands and feet, although the patella represents a particularly large example of a sesamoid bone. 

They vary in size and number. 

Some clearly serve to alter the angle of pull of a tendon. 

Others, however, are so small that they are of scant functional importance. 

Accessory bones

Accessory, or supernumerary, bones are bones that are not regularly present. 

They occur chiefly in the hands and feet. 

They include some sesamoid bones and certain ununited epiphyses in the adult. 

They are of forensic importance in that, when seen in radiograms, they may be mistaken for fractures. 

Callus, however, is absent, the bones are smooth, and they are often present bilaterally. 

Flat bones

Flat bones include the ribs, sternum, scapulae, lateral part of the clavicle, and many bones of the skull. 

They consist of two layers of compact bone with intervening spongy bone and marrow. 

The intervening spongy layer in the bones of the vault of the skull is termed diploe: it contains many venous channels. Some bones, such as the lacrimal and parts of the scapula, are so thin that they consist of only a thin layer of compact bone. 

Irregular Bones

Irregular bones are those that do not readily fit into other groups. They include many of the skull bones, the vertebrae, and the hip bones. 

Superior orbital fissure
Boundaries
 
 

Medial

Body of sphenoid bone

Superior

Lesser wing of sphenoid bone

Inferior

Medial margin of orbital surface of greater wing of sphenoid bone

Contents 
 
 

A. To the orbit

Of

1. Oculomotor nerve

Three

2. Trochlear nerve

Available

3. Abducens nerve

Tutors

4. Three branches of ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve

Only

5. Orbital branch of middle meningeal artery

First

6. Filaments from internal carotid plexus of the sympathetic

B. To the cranial cavity

Really

7. Recurrent meningeal branch of lacrimal artery

Oriented

8. Ophthalmic veins

Venous sinuses of Duramater
 
 
 

A. Posterior superior group

She

1. Superior sagittal

Invited

2. Inferior sagittal

Sister

3. Straight

To

4. Transverse (2)

Same

5. Sigmoid (2)

Opera

6. Occipital

B. Antero-inferior group

Calories

1. Cavernous

Sufficient

2. Sphenoparietal

In

3. Intercavernous

Some

4. Superior petrosal

Indian

5. Inferior petrosal

Baby

6. Basilar

Meals

7. Middle meningeal veins

Structures passing through cavernous sinus
 
 
 

I

1. Internal carotid artery

Save

2. Sypathetic plexus

An

3. Abducens nerve

Orphan

4. Oculomotor nerve

Too

5. Trochlear nerve

Often

6. Ophthalmic and maxillary division of trigeminal

Greater sciatic foramen
Boundaries

In front and above : Greater sciatic notch 
Behind : Sacrotuberous ligament 
Below :  1. Sacrospinous ligament 
               2. Spine of ischium 

Transmits
 
 

Some

1. Superior gluteal vessels and nerve

Persons

2. Piriformis muscle

In

3. Inferior gluteal vessels and nerve

Indian

4. Inferior pudendal vessels

Police

5. Pudendal nerve

Should 

6. Sciatic nerve

Possess

7. Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve

Nerves

8. Nerves to obturator internus and quadratus

Lesser sciatic foramen
Boundaries

Front : Body of the ischium 
Above : 1. Body of the ischium 
             2. Sacrospinous ligament 
Behind : Sacrotuberous ligament 

Transmits
 
 

Travelled

1. Tendon of obturator internus

Never

2. Nerve to obturator internus

In

3. Internal pudendal vessels

Plane

4. Pudendal nerve

Femoral triangle
Boundaries

Lateral : Medial margin of sartorius 
Medial : Medial margin of adductor longus 
Above : Inguinal ligament 
Floor : 1. Iliacus 
           2. Psoas major 
           3. Pectineus 
           4. Adductor longus 

Contains
 
 

Fore

1. Femoral vein

Fathers

2. Femoral nerve

Far

3. Femoral nerve

From

4. Fat

Land

5. Lymph nodes

Anterior triangle of neck
Boundaries

Anterior : Anterior median line of the neck 
Posterior : Anterior margin of sternocleidomastoid 
Base : 1. Base of the mandible 
           2. Line from angle to mandible to mastoid process 
Apex : Sternum 

Subdivisions
 
 

My

Muscular triangle

Cute

Carotid triangle

Dog

Digastric triangle

Standing

Submental triangle

Carotid triangle
Boundaries

Behind : Sternocleidomastoid 
Front and below : Omohyoid (superior belly) 
Above : 1. Stylohyoid 
              2. Digastric (posterior belly) 

Superficial
 
 

Senior

Skin

Superintendent

Superficial fascia

Police

Platysma

Denies

Deep fascia

Bribe

Branches of facial and cutaneous cervical nerves

Floor
 
 

Too

Thyrohyoid

High

Hypoglossus

Price

Pharyngeal constrictor muscle (inferior and middle)

Contents
 
 

A. Arteries

Can

1. Common carotid artery

Every

2. External carotid artery

Indian

3. Internal carotid artery

Spend

4. Superior thyroid artery

Little

5. Lingual artery

Amount?

6. Ascending pharyngeal artery

B. Veins

Seat

1. Superior thyroid vein

Left

2. Lingual vein

For

3. Facial vein

An

4. Ascending pharyngeal vein

Oldman

5. Occipital vein

C. Nerves

He

1. Hypoglossal nerve

Is

2. Internal laryngeal nerve

Energetic

3. External laryngeal nerve

Posterior triangle of neck
Boundaries

Front : Sternocleidomastoid 
Behind : Anterior margin of trapezius 
Base : Middle one-third of the clavicle 
Apex : Occipital bone between the attachment of sternocleidomastoid and trapezius 

Subdivisions
 
 

Occipital triangle

Supraclavicular triangle

Vertebral Column
Overview
1. The vertebral column is a flexuous and flexible column, formed of a series of bones called vertebra
2. The vertebrae are thirty-three in number 
 
 

A.Cervical

7

B.Thoracic

12

C.Lumbar

5

D. Sacral

5

E.Coccygeal

4

3. This number is sometimes increased by an additional vertebra in one region, or it may be diminished in one region, the deficiency often being supplied by an additional vertebra in another. The number of cervical vertebra is, however, very rarely increased or diminished.
4. The vertebra¦ in the upper three regions of the column remain distinct throughout life, and are known as true or movable vertebra.
5. The vertebra¦ of the sacral and coccygeal regions, are termed false or fixed vertebra¦, because they are united with one another in the adult to form two bones - five forming the upper bone or sacrum, and four the terminal bone or coccyx.
6. With the exception of the first and second cervical, the true or movable vertebra¦ present certain common characteristics which are best studied by examining one from the middle of the thoracic region.
 

General Characteristics of a Vertebra

A typical vertebra consists of three parts
a. Anterior segment, the body
b. Posterior part, the vertebral or neural arch
c. Vertebral foramen.

The vertebral arch consists of
a. pedicles  - one pair
b. lamina¦ - one pair

The vertebral arch supports seven processes
a. articular - 4
b. transverse - 2
c. spinous - 1

When the vertebra¦ are articulated with each other the bodies form a strong pillar for the support of the head and trunk.
The vertebral foramina constitute a canal for the protection of the medulla spinalis (spinal cord).
Between every pair of vertebra are two apertures, the intervertebral foramina, one on either side, for the transmission of the spinal nerves and vessels.

Body (corpus vertebrae)
1. The body is the largest part of a vertebra, and is more or less cylindrical in shape.
2. Its upper and lower surfaces are flattened and rough, and give attachment to the intervertebral fibrocartilages.
3. Each presents a rim around its circumference.
4. In front, the body is convex from side to side and concave from above downward.
5. Behind, it is flat from above downward and slightly concave from side to side.
6. Its anterior surface presents a few small apertures, for the passage of nutrient vessels.
7. On the posterior surface is a single large, irregular aperture, or occasionally more than one, for the exit of the basi-vertebral veins from the body of the vertebra.

Pedicles (radices arci vertebra)
1. The pedicles are two short, thick processes, which project backward, one on either side, from the upper part of the body, at the junction of its posterior and lateral surfaces.
2. The concavities above and below the pedicles are named the vertebral notches.
3. When the vertebra¦ are articulated, the notches of each contiguous pair of bones form the intervertebral foramina.

Lamina
1. The lamina¦ are two broad plates directed backward and medialward from the pedicles.
2. They fuse in the middle line posteriorly, and so complete the posterior boundary of the vertebral foramen.
3. Their upper borders and the lower parts of their anterior surfaces are rough for the attachment of the ligamenta flava.

Processes
Spinous Process. The spinous process is directed backward and downward from the junction of the lamina¦, and serves for the attachment of muscles and ligaments.

Articular Processes. The articular processes, two superior and two inferior, spring from the junctions of the pedicles and lamina
The superior project upward, and their articular surfaces are directed more or less backward
The inferior project downward, and their surfaces look more or less forward.
The articular surfaces are coated with hyaline cartilage.

Transverse Processes. The transverse processes, two in number, project one at either side from the point where the lamina joins the pedicle, between the superior and inferior articular processes.
They serve for the attachment of muscles and ligaments.

Structure of a Vertebra
1. The body is composed of cancellous tissue, covered by a thin coating of compact bone.
2. The latter is perforated by numerous orifices, some of large size for the passage of vessels.
3. The interior of the bone is traversed by one or two large canals, for the reception of veins, which converge toward a single large, irregular aperture, or several small apertures, at the posterior part of the body.
4. The thin bony lamella of the cancellous tissue are more pronounced in lines perpendicular to the upper and lower surfaces and are developed in response to greater pressure in this direction.
5. The arch and processes projecting from it have thick coverings of compact tissue.

Cervical Vertebrae

1. Cervical vertebra are the smallest of the true vertebra, and can be readily distinguished from those of the thoracic or lumbar regions by the presence of a foramen in each transverse process.
2. The first, second, and seventh present exceptional features and must be separately described; the following characteristics are common to the remaining four.

Body
1. Body is small, and broader from side to side than from before backward.
2. The anterior and posterior surfaces are flattened and of equal depth; the former is placed on a lower level than the latter
3. Inferior border is prolonged downward, so as to overlap the upper and forepart of the vertebra below.
4. The upper surface is concave transversely, and presents a projecting lip on either side.
5. The lower surface is concave from before backward, convex from side to side, and presents laterally shallow concavities which receive the corresponding projecting lips of the subjacent vertebra.

Pedicles
Pedicles are directed lateralward and backward, and are attached to the body midway between its upper and lower borders, so that the superior vertebral notch is as deep as the inferior, but it is, at the same time, narrower.

Laminae
Laminae are narrow, and thinner above than below

Vertebral foramen
Vertebral foramen is large, and of a triangular form.

Spinous processes
1. Spinous process is short and bifid, the two divisions being often of unequal size.
2. The superior and inferior articular processes on either side are fused to form an articular pillar, which projects lateralward from the junction of the pedicle and lamina.
3. The articular facets are flat and of an oval form.
4. The superior look backward, upward, and slightly medialward
5. The inferior forward, downward, and slightly lateralward.
6. The transverse processes are each pierced by the foramen transversarium, which, in the upper six vertebra, gives passage to the vertebral artery and vein and a plexus of sympathetic nerves.
7. Each process consists of an anterior and a posterior part.
8. The anterior portion is the homologue of the rib in the thoracic region, and is therefore named the costal process or costal element.
9. It arises from the side of the body, is directed lateralward in front of the foramen, and ends in a tubercle, the anterior tubercle.
10. The posterior part, the true transverse process, springs from the vertebral arch behind the foramen, and is directed forward and lateralward.
11. It ends in a flattened vertical tubercle, the posterior tubercle.
12. These two parts are joined, outside the foramen, by a bar of bone which exhibits a deep sulcus on its upper surface for the passage of the corresponding spinal nerve.

First Cervical Vertebra
1. The first cervical vertebra is named the atlas because it supports the globe of the head.
2. Its chief peculiarity is that it has no body, and this is due to the fact that the body of the atlas has fused with that of the next vertebra.
3. Its other peculiarities are that it has no spinous process, is ring-like, and consists of an anterior and a posterior arch and two lateral masses.
4. The anterior arch forms about one-fifth of the ring.
5. Its anterior surface is convex, and presents at its center the anterior tubercle for the attachment of the Longus colli muscles
6. Posteriorly it is concave, and marked by a smooth, oval or circular facet (fovea dentis), for articulation with the odontoid process (dens) of the axis.
7. The upper and lower borders respectively give attachment to the anterior atlantooccipital membrane and the anterior atlantoaxial ligament.
8. The former connects it with the occipital bone above, and the latter with the axis below.
9. The posterior arch forms about two-fifths of the circumference of the ring.
10. It ends behind in the posterior tubercle, which is the rudiment of a spinous process and gives origin to the Recti capitis posteriores minores.
11. The diminutive size of this process prevents any interference with the movements between the atlas and the skull.
12. The posterior part of the arch presents above and behind a rounded edge for the attachment of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane.
13. Immediately behind each superior articular process is a groove (sulcus arteria vertebralis), sometimes converted into a foramen by a delicate bony spiculum which arches backward from the posterior end of the superior articular process.
14. This groove represents the superior vertebral notch, and serves for the transmission of the vertebral artery, which, after ascending through the foramen in the transverse process, winds around the lateral mass in a direction backward and medialward.
15. It also transmits the suboccipital (first spinal) nerve.
16. On the under surface of the posterior arch, behind the articular facets, are two shallow grooves, the inferior vertebral notches.
17. The lower border gives attachment to the posterior atlantoaxial ligament, which connects it with the axis.
18. The lateral masses are the most bulky and solid parts of the atlas, in order to support the weight of the head.
19. Each carries two articular facets, a superior and an inferior.
20. The superior facets are of large size, oval, concave, and approach each other in front, but diverge behind: they are directed upward, medialward, and a little backward.
21. Each forms a cup for the corresponding condyle of the occipital bone.
22. The superior facets are admirably adapted to the nodding movements of the head.
23. Not infrequently they are partially subdivided by indentations which encroach upon their margins.
24. The inferior articular facets are circular in form, flattened or slightly convex and directed downward and medialward, articulating with the axis, and permitting the rotatory movements of the head.
25. Just below the medial margin of each superior facet is a small tubercle, for the attachment of the transverse atlantal ligament which stretches across the ring of the atlas.
26. The tubercle divides the vertebral foramen into two unequal parts
a. Anterior or smaller receiving the odontoid process of the axis
b. Posterior transmitting the medulla spinalis and its membranes.
27. This part of the vertebral canal is of considerable size, much greater than is required for the accommodation of the medulla spinalis, and hence lateral displacement of the atlas may occur without compression of this structure.
28. The transverse processes are large; they project lateralward and downward from the lateral masses, and serve for the attachment of muscles which assist in rotating the head.
29. They are long, and their anterior and posterior tubercles are fused into one mass; the foramen transversarium is directed from below, upward and backward.

Second Cervical Vertebra
1. The second cervical vertebra is named the epistropheus or axis because it forms the pivot upon which the first vertebra, carrying the head, rotates.
2. The most distinctive characteristic of this bone is the strong odontoid process which rises perpendicularly from the upper surface of the body.

Body
1. The body is deeper in front than behind, and prolonged downward anteriorly so as to overlap the upper and fore part of the third vertebra.
2. It presents in front a median longitudinal ridge, separating two lateral depressions for the attachment of the Longus colli muscles.
3. Its under surface is concave from before backward and covex from side to side.
4. The dens or odontoid process exhibits a slight constriction or neck, where it joins the body.
5. On its anterior surface is an oval or nearly circular facet for articulation with that on the anterior arch of the atlas.
6. On the back of the neck, and frequently extending on to its lateral surfaces, is a shallow groove for the transverse atlantal ligament which retains the process in position.
7. The apex is pointed, and gives attachment to the apical odontoid ligament; below the apex the process is somewhat enlarged, and presents on either side a rough impression for the attachment of the alar ligament; these ligaments connect the process to the occipital bone.
8. The internal structure of the odontoid process is more compact than that of the body.

Pedicles
1. The pedicles are broad and strong, especially in front, where they coalesce with the sides of the body and the root of the odontoid process.
2. They are covered above by the superior articular surfaces.

Laminae
The lamina are thick and strong, and the vertebral foramen large, but smaller than that of the atlas.

Transverse processes
1. The transverse processes are very small, and each ends in a single tubercle.
2, Each is perforated by the foramen transversarium, which is directed obliquely upward and lateralward.
3. The superior articular surfaces are round, slightly convex, directed upward and lateralward, and are supported on the body, pedicles, and transverse processes.
4. The inferior articular surfaces have the same direction as those of the other cervical vertebra
5. The superior vertebral notches are very shallow, and lie behind the articular processes.
6. The inferior lie in front of the articular processes, as in the other cervical vertebra
7. The spinous process is large, very strong, deeply channelled on its under surface, and presents a bifid, tuberculated extremity.

Seventh Cervical Vertebra
1. The most distinctive characteristic of this vertebra is the existence of a long and prominent spinous process, hence the name vertebra prominens.
2. This process is thick, nearly horizontal in direction, not bifurcated, but terminating in a tubercle to which the lower end of the ligamentum nucha is attached.
3. The transverse processes are of considerable size.
4. Their posterior roots are large and prominent.
5. Anterior are small and faintly marked.
6. The upper surface of each has usually a shallow sulcus for the eighth spinal nerve, and its extremity seldom presents more than a trace of bifurcation.
7. The foramen transversarium may be as large as that in the other cervical vertebra, but is generally smaller on one or both sides; occasionally it is double, sometimes it is absent.
8. On the left side it occasionally gives passage to the vertebral artery; more frequently the vertebral vein traverses it on both sides; but the usual arrangement is for both artery and vein to pass in front of the transverse process, and not through the foramen.
9. Sometimes the anterior root of the transverse process attains a large size and exists as a separate bone, which is known as a cervical rib.
10. The costal element of a cervical vertebra not only includes the portion which springs from the side of the body, but the anterior and posterior tubercles and the bar of bone which connects them
 

Bones of base of the skull
 
 

Anterior cranial fossa

Foreign

Frontal

Equity

Ethmoid

Should

Sphenoid

Middle cranial fossa

See

Sphenoid

Tough

Temporal

Posterior cranial fossa

Opposition

Occipital

Muscle attachments of first rib
 
 

Origins

S

Serratus anterior

S

Subclavius

Insertions

S

Scalenus medius

S

Scalenus anterior

Muscle attachments of clavicle
 
 
 

A. Origins

Delhi

1. Deltoid

Public

2. Pectoralis major

School

3. Sternocleidomastoid

Staff

4. Sternohyoid

B. Insertions

Trains

1. Trapezius

Students

2. Subclavius

Humerus – Parts
 
 

Have

Head

A

Anatomical neck

Narrow groove

Lesser tubercle (tuberculum minus; lesser tuberosity)

Greater tubercle ((tuberculum majus; greater tuberosity)

Elevation – Lateral part of upper end

Posterior aspect – 3 flat impressions

Highest impression inserts supraspinatous muscle 

Middle impression inserts infraspinatus muscle

Lowest impression alongwith body inserts teres minor muscle

Intertubercular sulcus (bicipital groove)

Crest of greater tubercle

Crest of lesser tubercle

Better

Body (shaft; corpus humeri) – 3 borders and three surfaces

Anterior border

upper 1/3rd forms the lateral lip of the intertubercular sulcus

middle part forms the anterior margin of the deltoid tuberosity

lower half is smooth and rounded

Middle border

Lateral or spiral groove in the middle part

Supracondylar ridge at lower end

Medial border

upper part of the medial border forms the medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus

continuous below with the medial supracondylar ridge

Anterolateral surface

Vshaped deltoid tuberosity a little above the middle

Radial groove behind deltoid tuberosity, runs downwards and forwards 

Anteromedial surface

Lies between the anterior and medial borders.

Upper 1/3rd is narrow and forms the floor of the intertubercular sulcus.

A nutrient foramen is present on this surface

Posterior surface

Lies between the medial and lateral borders.

Oblique ridge in upper part

Radial groove crosses the middle third

Lover

Lower end

Flattened from before backward, and curved slightly forward

Ends below in a broad, articular surface, which is divided into two parts by a ridge

Lateral and medial epicondyles project on either side

Capitulum - Rounded projection which articulates with the head of the radius

Trochlea

A pulley shaped surface

Articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna.

Medial edge is responsible for forming the carrying angle.

Medial epicondyle - Prominent bony projection on the medial side of the lower end.

Lateral epicondyle

Smaller than the medial one 

Anterolateral part has a muscular impression.

Lateral supracondylar ridge - Sharp lateral margin just above the lower end

Medial supracondylar ridge - Similar ridge to the medial aspect.

Coronoid fossa - Depression just above the anterior aspect of the trochlea

Radial fossa - Depression present just above anterior aspect of the capitulum

Olecranon fossa - Lies just above the posterior aspect of the trochlea

Muscle attachments of humerus
 
 

Lesser tuberosity

Subscapularis

Greater tuberosity

Supraspinatus

Infraspinatus

Teres minor

Floor of the intertubercular sulcus

Latissimus dorsi

Lateral lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus

Pectoralis major

Medial lip of the bicipital groove of the humerus

Teres major

Upper half of posterior surface of shaft of humerus above radial groove

Lateral head of the triceps – origin

Lower half of the posterior surface of the shaft of humerus

Medial head of the triceps

Front of the lower half of the humerus

Brachialis

Middle of the lateral surface of the shaft of the humerus

Deltoid – insertion

Rough area on the middle of the medial border

Coracobrachialis – insertion

upper 2/3rd of the lateral supracondylar ridge

Brachioradialis – origin

lower 1/3rd of the lateral supracondylar ridge

Extensor carpi radialis longus

lateral epicondyle

Common Extensor Origin

posterior surface of the lateral epicondyle

Anconeus – origin

lower 1/3rd of the medial supracondylar ridge medial epicondyle of the humerus

Pronator teres (humeral head) – origin

anterior aspect of the medial epicondyle

Common Flexor Origin

Muscle attachments of radius
 
 
 

A. Origins

Fried

1. Flexor digitorum superficialis

Fish

2. Flexor pollicis longus

And

3. Abductor pollicis longus

Eggs

4. Extensor pollicis brevis

B. Insertions

Some

1. Supinator

Bad

2. Biceps

People

3. Pronator teres

Preach

4. Pronator quadratus

Bad

5. Brachioradialis

Muscle attachments of ulna
 
 
 

A. Origins

Family

1. Flexor digitorum

Planning

2. Pronator teres (ulnar)

For

3. Flexor pollicicx longus (occasional head) 

Small

4. Supinator

Families;

5. Flexor digitorum profundus

An

6. Abductor pollicis longus

Extremely

7. Extensor pollicis longus

Essential

8. Extensor indicis

Proposal

9. Posterior border with aponeurosis common to :-

Every

a. Extensor carpi ulnaris

Fault

b. Flexor carpi ulnaris

Fixed

c. Flexor digitorum profundus

B. Insertions

T

1. Triceps

A

2. Anconeus

B

3. Brachialis

Carpal bones
 
 

Some

1. Scaphoid

Ladies

2. Lunate

Take

3. Triquetral

Pains

4. Pisiform

To

5. Trapezium

Train

6. Trapezoid

Children

7. Capitate

Heavily

8. Hamate

Pelvis and perineum - Parts
 
 

  1. False pelvis

The superior region related to upper parts of the pelvic bones and lower lumbar vertebrae (greater pelvis)

Generally considered part of the abdomen

  1. True pelvis ( lesser pelvis)

Related to the inferior parts of the pelvic bones, sacrum, and coccyx.

Has an inlet and an outlet

  1. Pelvic cavity

Bowl shaped

Enclosed by the true pelvis

Consists of the pelvic inlet, walls, and floor

Continuous superiorly with the abdominal cavity

Contains elements of the urinary, gastrointestinal, and reproductive systems

  1. Perineum

Inferior to the floor of the pelvic cavity

Its boundaries form the pelvic outlet

Contains the external genitalia

Contains external openings of the genitourinary and gastrointestinal systems

Functions of Pelvis

Contains and supports :- 

Bladder 

Rectum 

Anal canal 

Reproductive tracts 

Urinary bladder

Bladder is positioned anteriorly and the rectum posteriorly in the midline, within pelvic cavity; 

Supported by adjacent elements of the pelvic bone and by the pelvic floor. 

Urethra

Passes through the pelvic floor to the perineum; 

In women, it opens externally and in men it enters the base of the penis. 

Rectum and sigmoid colon

At the level of vertebra SIII, sigmoid colon continues as rectum which terminates at the anal canal; 

Anal canal penetrates the pelvic floor to open into the perineum; 

The anal canal is angled posteriorly on the rectum; 

This flexure is maintained by muscles of the pelvic floor and is relaxed during defecation; 

Anal canal and urethra have a skeletal muscle sphincter as each passes through the pelvic floor. 

Reproductive organs

In women :- 

Vagina penetrates the pelvic floor; 

Connects with the uterus in the pelvic cavity; 

The uterus is positioned between the rectum and the bladder; 

Uterine (fallopian) tube extends laterally on each side toward the pelvic wall to open near the ovary. 

In men :- 

Pelvic cavity contains the site of connection between the urinary and reproductive tracts; 

It also contains major glands associated with the reproductive system - the prostate and two seminal vesicles. 

In both genders :- 

Roots of the external genitalia, the clitoris and the penis, are firmly anchored to the bony margin of the anterior half of the pelvic outlet, and a thick, fibrous, perineal membrane, which fills the area. 

Pelvic inlet

Heart shaped and completely ringed by bone; 

Bordered posteriorly by body of vertebra SI, which projects into the inlet as the sacral promontory; 

On each side of this vertebra, winglike transverse processes called the alae ( wings) contribute to the margin of the pelvic inlet; 

Laterally, a prominent rim on the pelvic bone continues the boundary of the inlet forward to the pubic symphysis, where the two pelvic bones are joined in the midline. 

Pelvic serves as passge of structures between the pelvic cavity and the abdomen; 

During childbirth, the fetus passes through the pelvic inlet from the abdomen, into which the uterus has expanded during pregnancy, and then passes through the pelvic outlet. 

Pelvic walls

The walls of the true pelvis comprise bone, muscle, and ligaments, with the sacrum, coccyx, and inferior half of the pelvic bones forming much of them; 

The walls have two ligaments - the sacrospinous and the sacrotuberous ligaments, which link each pelvic bone to the sacrum and coccyx; 

These ligaments also convert two notches on the pelvic bones - the greater sciatic notch and lesser sciatic notch - into foramina on the lateral pelvic walls. 

Muscle attachments of Pelvic bone (Hip bone)
A. Internal muscles of the pelvic

B. Abdominal muscles

C. Back muscles

D. Gluteal muscles

E. Muscles of the lateral rotator group

F. Hamstring muscles

G. Shoulder Muscles

B. Abdominal muscles
1. External oblique muscle attaches to the iliac crest.
2. Internal oblique muscle attaches to pecten pubis.
3. Transversus abdominis muscle attaches to the pubic crest

4. Pecten pubis via a conjoint tendon

C. Back muscles
Multifidus muscle in the sacral region attaches to :-

a. Medial surface of posterior superior iliac spine

b. Posterior sacroiliac ligaments

c. Sacrum.

D. Gluteal muscles

1. Gluteus maximus muscle arises from :-

a. Posterior gluteal line of the inner upper ilium

b. Rough portion of bone including the iliac crest

c. Fascia covering the gluteus medius (gluteal aponeurosis)

d. Sacrum

e. Coccyx

f. Erector spinae (lumbodorsal fascia)

g. Sacrotuberous ligament.
2. The gluteus medius muscle originates on the :-

a. Outer surface of the ilium between the iliac crest and the posterior gluteal line above

b. Anterior gluteal line below.

c. Gluteal aponeurosis that covers its outer surface.
3. Gluteus minimus muscle originates :-

a. Between the anterior and inferior gluteal lines

b. From the margin of the greater sciatic notch.
E. Lateral rotator group
1. Piriformis muscle originates from :-

a. Superior margin of the greater sciatic notch

b. Sacroiliac joint capsule

c. Sacrotuberous ligament

d. Part of the spine and sacrum.
2. Superior gemellus muscle arises from the outer surface of the ischial spine
3. Obturator internus muscle arises from :-

a. Inner surface of the antero-lateral wall of the hip bone

b. Pelvic surface of the obturator membrane except in the posterior part, from the tendinous arch

c. Obturator fascia, which covers the muscle.
3. Inferior gemellus muscle arises from the upper part of the tuberosity of the ischium, immediately below the groove for the obturator internus tendon.
4. Obturator externus muscle arises from :-

a. Margin of bone immediately around the medial side of the obturator foramen, from the rami of the pubis, and the inferior ramus of the ischium

b. Medial two-thirds of the outer surface of the obturator membrane

c. Tendinous arch.

F. Hamstrings
1. Long head biceps femoris arises from :-

a. Lower and inner impression on the back part of the tuberosity of the ischium, by a tendon common to it and the semitendinosus

b. Lower part of the sacrotuberous ligament
2. Semitendinosus arises from :-

a. Lower and medial impression on the tuberosity of the ischium, by a tendon common to it and the long head of the biceps femoris;

b. An aponeurosis which connects the adjacent surfaces of the two muscles to the extent of about 7.5 cm. from their origin.
3. The semimembranosus arises from the lower and medial impression on the tuberosity of the ischium

4. The rectus femoris muscle arises by two tendons:-

a. Anterior or straight, from the anterior inferior iliac spine;

b. Posterior or reflected, from a groove above the rim of the acetabulum.
4. Sartorius muscle arises by tendinous fibres from the anterior superior iliac spine,

G. Shoulder muscles
Latissimus dorsi muscle attaches to the iliac crest and several places on the spine and ribs.

Muscle attachments of femur
 
 

A. Origins

Very

1. Vastus radialis

Very

2. Vastus intermedius

Very

3. Vastus medialis

Big

4. Biceps femoris (short head)

Grand

5. Gastrocnemius

Palace

6. Plantaris

B. Insertions 
 
 

Guys

1. Gluteus medius

Gals

2. Gluteus minimus

Please

3. Piriformis

Open

4. Obturator externus

Old

5. Obturator internus

Question

6. Quadratus femoris

Paper

7. Psoas major

Guys

8. Gemellus superior

Gals

9. Gemellus inferior

Always

10. Adductor magnus

In

11. Iliacus

Great

12. Gluteus maximum

Problem

13. Pectineus

Answering

14. Adductor brevis

Anything

15. Adductor longus

Muscle attachments of tibia 
 
 

A. Origins

Please

1. Peroneus longus

Engage

2. Extensor digitorum longus

The

3. Tibialis anterior

Tall

4. Tibialis posterior

Slim

5. Soleus

Girl

6. Gastrocnemius

B. Insertions

Smart

1. Semimembranous

Boys

2. Biceps femoris

Smart

3. Sartorius

Girls

4. Gracilis

Smart

5. Semitendinosus

Parents

6. Popliteus

Muscle attachments of fibula
 
 

A. Origins 

Party

1. Peroneus Longus 

People

2. Peroneus Brevis 

Sending

3. Soleus 

Extremely

4. Extensor Digitorum Longus 

Elegant

5. Extensor Hallicis Longus 

Tall

6. Tibialis Posterior

Frame

7. Flexor hallucis longus

Tarsal bones
 
 
 

Two

1. Talus

Carbon

2. Calcaneus

Copies

3. Cuneiform (medial)

Can

4. Cuneiform (intermediate)

Come

5. Cuneiform (lateral)

Comparatively

6. Cuboid

Neat

7. Navicular

(a) Names of the bones of the body and their position; classification of the bones with examples;

general features of the bone and normal development; microscopic anatomy of bone; general pattern

of blood supply; ossification of the bones of the limbs for age determination. X-rays of bones.

(b) Process of repair of bone.
 

 
 


 

 

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Chapter 1

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Medical Laboratory Techniques
Indian Pharmaceutical Index
Synopsis of Pathology
A Guide To Pathology
Anatomy Mnemonics
Biochemistry
Pharmacology
Microbiology


Obsterics & Gynaecology
Surgery
Cardiology
Cardiothoracic Surgery
Gastroenterology
Dermatology
Anaesthesia
Bariatrics


Astrology
Botany
Zoology
General Biology
Chemistry
Document Writer
English Lyrics
Songbook

Mnemonics, Multiple Choice Questions, and videos have been added in above books.

YouTube Partner Channel


Print Edition Published By : JAYPEE BROTHERS, Medical Publishers
4838/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj,
Post Box 7193 New Delhi 110 002 India
Phone: 43574357  23272143  23272703    23282021  23245672
Fax: +91-11-23276490  23245683
Email: jaypee@jaypeebrothers.com Website : http://jaypeebrothers.com