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Dr K Chaudhry
Anatomy Made Easy 

With Mnemonics

Saksham Chaudhry

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Introduction Osteology Muscular System Arthrology Cardio Vascular System
Respiratory System Digestive System Genito-Urinary System Endocrine System Nervous System
Special Sensory Organs Lymphatic System Surface Anatomy Cross Sectional Anatomy Histology
General Embryology Systemic Embryology Human Genetics AIIMS Syllabus
Chapter 15
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Chapter 15. Histology

Cell : detailed structure of cell and its components and their functional mechanisms.

Four primary tissues

Epithelium : Microscopic characteristics, types, functions, distribution, basal lamina, cell junctions, specialization of the cell surface and their structural details and functions; metaplasia.

Connective tissue : Cells, fibers and their structural features and functions. Intercellular substances, amorphous ground substance, types of connective tissue (loose areolar tissue, dense connective tissue) and their distribution. 

Specialized connective tissue : different types of cartilages and their functions and

distribution. Bone : Cells, bone matrix, structural features of compact and cancellous bone, their distribution and functions, ossification, blood supply of a long bone.

Muscle : General features, detailed structure of : skeletal muscle, and molecular mechanisms of contraction, innvervation of skeletal muscle, neuromuscular junction, morphological and histochemical basis of classification into type I and type II muscle fibers and their significance, structural and functional characteristics of cardiac and smooth muscle; innvervation of cardiac and smooth muscle.

Nervous tissue : Structural characteristics of a neuron, axon and dendrties. Different types of neurons and their specific structural and functional features and distribution. Axonal transport, synapse, morphological and functional characteristics of different types of synapses. Neuroglia : types, structure and functions, blood brain barrier. Brief cytoarchitecture of the central nervous system, regeneration in CNS with particular emphasis on stem cells. Sensory and autonomic ganglia, peripheral nerves, myelin and myelination, degeneration and regeneration in peripheral nerves.

Histology of various organs/organ systems

Exocrine glands : Characteristics, simple and compound glands; types of secretions, modes of secretion, detailed structural features of a serous secreting cell and mucous secreting cell, serous and mucous acini, duct system, features of salivary glands, exocrine pancreas, sweat and sebaceous glands, mammary gland, bulbourethral gland etc.

Circulatory system : Structural features of heart; conducting and distributing arteries and arterioles; types of capillaries, their structural features and distribution and microcirculation, detailed structure of endothelium; structural characteristics of large and small veins and venules arterio-venous shunts, lymphatics.

Respiratory system : Structural features of nose, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, principal brochi, lung including intrapulmonary bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, atria, alveoli, blood-air-barrier. Functions of different parts of respiratory system.

Skin and nerve-end-organs : Thick, thin and hairy skin, cell renewal and pigmentation of skin, skin appendages, healing of skin wounds, sensory receptors of skin. Functions of skin.

Immune system and lymphoid organs : Lymphocytes, their subtypes and functions. Humoral and cell mediated immunity. Thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils and other mucous associated lymphoid follicles.

Digestive system (GIT) : General organization, oral cavity, lip, cheek, tongue, taste buds, associated salivary glands. Layers of tubular digestive tract, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, gastroesophageal junction, gastroduodenal junction, large intestine, anal canal and rectoanal junction. Liver, internal organization of liver, liver lobule, liver acinus, significance of zonation in liver acinus, liver sinusoids, detailed structure of hapatocyet, bile canaliculi, bile ducts, gall bladder, bile duct and pancreas.

Endocrine glands : Thyroid, parathyroid, Islets of Langerhan’s gland, adrenal cortex and medulla, their structural details, functional mechanisms, hypophysis cerebri, cell types secretion and their functions, hypophyseal portal circulation, common endocrine disorders

Urinary system : Detailed microscopic structure of kidney, cortex, medulla, pyramids, medullary rays, cortical columns, glomerulus, nephron, glomerular filtration juxtaglomerular apparatus, its structural features and functions, renal interstitium, collecting ducts, renal sinus, minor and major calyces, microcirculation of kidney, histophysiology of the kidney, renal pelvis and ureters, urinary bladder and urethra.

Female reproductive system : Ovary, ovarian stroma, primary and secondary graafian follicles, functions of various constitutents and structural details of graafian follicles, atretic follicles, corpuluteum and its functions, corpus albicans. Oviducts, uterus, arterial supply of uterus, cyclic changes in uterine endometrium, fertilization, vagina, female external ganitalia and mammary glands.

Male reproductive system : Testes, spermatogenesis, spermatozoon, cycle of seminiferous epithelium, sertoli cells, interstitial tissue Leydig cells, histophysiology of testes, epididymus, vas deferns, prostrate, seminal vesicles, penis.





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