Physiology Mnemonics
Dr K Chaudhry

FIRST Author of Jaypee Brothers


 

 

 

Page

01

General principles of human physiology

3

02

Nervous system

10

03

Cardiovascular system

12

04

Respiratory system

20

05

Digestive system

21

 


 

Chapter 1 : General principles of human physiology

Types of human physiology

Common

1.      Cell physiology

Sense

2.      Special physiology

Saves

3.      Systemic physiology

People

4.      Pathophysiology

 

Levels of Organisation

 

A

Atom

M

Molecule

M

Macromolecule

O

Organelles

C

Cell

T

Tissue

O

Organ

S

System

H

Human body

 

Life processes

M

Metabolism

E

Excitability

C

Conductivity

C

Contractility

G

Growth

D

Differentiation

R

Reproduction

 

Elements in Human body

H

Hydrogen

C

Carbon

N

Nitrogen

O

Oxygen

S

Sodium

M

Magnesium

P

Phosphorus

S

Sulfur

C

Chlorine

P

Potassium

C

Calcium

 

Characteristics of life

Chief

Cells

Minister

Metabolism

Ganesh

Growth

Rao

Reproduction

Insulted

Irritability

A

Adaptation

Member

Movement

 

Tissues in the human body

Earning

Epithelial

Members

Muscle

Never

Nervous

Come

Connective tissues

 

 

ORGANELLES

E

 

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

T

 

The rough Endoplasmic Reticulum:

S

 

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum:

T

 

The Golgi Complex

L

 

Lysosomes

P

 

Peroxisome

M

 

Mitochondria

C

 

Cytosol

R

 

Ribosome

C

 

Cytoskeleton

 

My

 

1. Microtubules

 

Mem

 

2. Microfilaments

 

In

 

3. Intermediate filaments

 

Madras

 

4. Microtubular lattice

 

Membrane Transport

 

Daily

Diffusion down a concentration gradient

Motion

Movement along electrical gradient

Can

Carrier- Mediated Transport

Fund

Facilitated Diffusion

Visitors

Vesicular Transport

 

 

 

Body Systems and their parts

 

C

 

Circulation

 

 

H

 

 Heart

 

 

B

 

Blood vessels

 

 

B

 

Blood

 

D

 

Digestive system

 

 

M

 

Mouth

 

 

P

 

Pharynx

 

 

E

 

Esophagus

 

 

S

 

Stomach

 

 

S

 

Small intestine

 

 

L

 

Large intestine

 

 

S

 

Salivary glands

 

 

P

 

Pancreas

 

 

L

 

Liver

 

 

G

 

Gallbladder

 

R

 

Respiratory system

 

 

N

 

Nose

 

 

P

 

Pharynx

 

 

L

 

Larynx

 

 

T

 

Trachea

 

 

B

 

Bronchi

 

 

L

 

Lungs

 

U

 

Urinary system

 

 

K

 

Kidneys

 

 

U

 

Ureters

 

 

U

 

Urinary bladder

 

 

U

 

Urethra

 

S

 

Skeletal system

 

 

B

 

Bones

 

 

C

 

Cartilage

 

 

J

 

Joints

 

M

 

Muscle system

 

 

 

 

Skeletal muscle

 

I

 

Integumentary system

 

 

S

 

Skin

 

 

H

 

Hair

 

 

N

 

Nails

 

I

 

Immune system

 

 

L

 

Leukocytes

 

 

T

 

Thymus

 

 

B

 

Bone marrow

 

 

T

 

Tonsils

 

 

A

 

Adenoids,

 

 

L

 

Lymph nodes

 

 

S

 

Spleen

 

 

A

 

Appendix

 

 

G

 

Gut-associated lymphoid tissue

 

S

 

Skin-associated lymphoid tissue

 

M

 

Muscosa associated lymphoid tissue

N

 

Nervous system

 

 

Binny

 

Brain

 

 

Sending

 

Spinal cord

 

 

Paper

 

Peripheral nervous system.

 

Sheets

 

Special sense organs

E

 

Endocrine system

 

 

H

 

Hypothalamus,

 

 

P

 

Pituitary

 

 

T

 

Thyroid

 

 

P

 

Parathyroids

 

 

A

 

Adrenals

 

 

P

 

Pancreas

 

 

K

 

Kidney

 

 

I

 

Intestine

 

 

H

 

Heart

 

 

T

 

Thymus

 

 

P

 

Pineal

 

R

 

Reproductive system

 

 

 

Male:

 

T

 

 

Testis

 

P

 

 

Prostate

 

S

 

 

Seminal vesicles

 

B

 

 

Bulbourethral glands

 

A

 

`

Associated ducts

 

 

 

` Female:

 

O

 

 

Ovary

 

O

 

 

Oviduct

 

U

 

 

Uterus

 

V

 

 

Vagina

 

B

 

 

Breast.

 

Cytoplasmic organelles

R

Ribosomes

 

E

Endoplasmic reticulum

 

 

 

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

 

 

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

G

Golgi apparatus

 

L

Lysosomes

 

P

Peroxisomes

 

M

Mitochondria

 

C

Centrosome

 

C

Centrioles

 

C

Cytoskeleton

 

 

 

Microfilaments

 

 

Microtubules

Homeostasis altered by :

N

Nutrition

T

Toxins

P

Psychological

P

Physical

G

Genetic/Reproductive:

M

Medical

 

Homeostatic control

Some

Stimulus– produces a change to a variable (the factor being regulated).

Rotareans

Receptor– detects the change. The receptor monitors the environment and responds to change (stimuli).

Invited

Input– information travels along the (afferent) pathway to the control center. The control center determines the appropriate response and course of action.

On

Output– information sent from the control center travels down the (efferent) pathway to the effector.

Ramp

Response– a response from the effector balances out the original stimulus to maintain homeostasis.

 


Homoeostatic Controlled systems

C

Core body temperature

B

Blood glucose

P

Plasma ionized calcium

B

Blood partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide

B

Blood oxygen content

A

Arterial blood pressure

E

Extracellular sodium concentration

E

Extracellular potassium concentration

V

Volume of body water

E

Extracellular fluid pH

 

Physiological Regulation

 

Intracellular Regulation

 

 

Control by Local Chemical Factors

 

 

Metabolic auto-regulation of blood flow

 

 

Prostaglandins

 

Intrinsic Regulation or autoregulation

 

Extrinsic Regulation - control by hormones and/or nerves

 

Cellular adaptation

A

 

Atrophy

 

 

P

 

Physiological Atrophy

 

 

E

 

Endocrine Atrophy

 

 

N

 

Neuropathic Atrophy

 

 

D

 

Disuse Atrophy

 

 

N

 

Nutritional Atrophy

 

 

O

 

Other Types of Atrophies

 

 

 

 

Skeletal muscle atrophy

 

 

 

 

Pressure atrophy

 

 

 

 

Irradiation atrophy

H

 

Hypoplasia

H

 

Hypertrophy

H

 

Hyperplasia

M

 

Metaplasia

D

 

Dysplasia

 

Body systems

N

Nervous System

E

Endocrine System

I

Integumentary System

S

Skeletal System

M

Muscular System

C

Cardiovascular System

L

Lymphatic System

R

Respiratory System

D

Digestive System

U

Urinary System

R

Reproductive System

E

Excretory System

 Specialized Cells of the Human Body

N

Nerve cells (neurons)

 

E

Epithelial cells

 

E

Exocrine cells

 

E

Endocrine cells

 

B

Blood Cells

 

 

Erythrocytes

 

 

Leucocytes

Membrane proteins

C

Channel proteins

T

Transport proteins

R

Recognition proteins

A

Adhesion proteins

R

Receptor proteins

E

Electron transfer proteins

Structure of nail

R

Root

N

Nail Bed

N

Nail Plate

E

Eponychium

P

Perionychium

H

Hyponychium

Classification of neurons

Two

Tonic or regular spiking

Patients

Phasic or bursting

For

Fast spiking

Treatment

Thin-spike

Nervous impulse - Stages

Do

Depolarization

Rascals

Repolarization

Help

Hyperpolarization

Rascals?

Refractory phase

 

Pituitary hormones

F

Follicle stimulating hormone

L

Lutinizing hormone

A

Adrenocorticotropin hormone

G

Growth hormone

T

Thyroid stimulating hormone

O

Oxytocin

P [Flag Top]

Prolactin

Arenal cortex

 

Layer

Product

Great

Glomerulosa

Mineralcorticoids

For

Fasiculata

Glucocorticoids

Romance

Reticulata

Sex hormones


Heart valves

They

Tricuspid

Purchased

Pulmonary

Same

Semilunar

Boots

Bicuspid

And

Aortic

Sandals

Semilunar

 

 

Chapter 2 : Nervous system

 

Components of the nervous system

National

Neurons

Defence

Dendrites

Academy

Axons

Gets

Glial cells or Neuroglial cells

Signal

Sensory endings

 

 

1. Exteroreceptors

 

 

2. Propioreceptors

 

 

3. Interoreceptors (visceroreceptors)

 

Phases of the action potential:

Road

Resting membrane potential (RMP)

Transport

Threshold potential

Under

Upstroke or rising phase

Open

Overshoot

Rumour

Repolarization phase

 

CHEMICAL NEUROTRANSMITTER (small, rapidly acting molecules)

A

Acetylcholine (Ach)

D

Dopamine

E

Epinephrine

N

Norepinephrine

S

Serotonin

H

Histamine

G

Glycine

G

Glutamate

A

Aspartate

G

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

 

Neuropeptides (large, slow-acting molecules)

B

Beta-endorphin

A

ACTH

M

MSH

T

TRH

G

GnRH

S

Somatostatin

V

VIP

C

CCK

G

Gastrin

S

Substance P

N

Neurotensin

L

Leucine

E

Enkephalin

M

Methionine enkephalin

M

Motilin

I

Insulin

G

Glucagons

A

Angiotensin-II

B

Bradykinin

V

Vasopressin

O

Oxytocin

C

Carnosine

B

Bombesin

 

Whole Muscle Contraction

 

 

Isotonic Contraction

 

 

Concentric contraction

 

 

Eccentric contraction

 

Isometric Contraction

 

ATP provider pathways

Come

1. Creatinine phosphate

On

2. Oxidative phosphorylation

Guys

3. Glycolysis


 

 

Chapter 3 : Cardiovascular system

 

Important Carrier Proteins of Plasma

 

Protein

Materials bound

Arun

Albumin

Fatty acids, bilirubin, many drugs, heme, thyroxine

Arora

Apolipoproteins

Triglycerides, phospholipidsmcholesterol

Has

Haptoglobin

Plasma hemoglobin from lysed red blood cells

Had

Hemopexin

Heme from plasma hemoglobin

Three

Transferrin

Iron

Cardiac

Ceruloplasmin

Copper

Pains

Prealbumin

Thyroxine, vitamin A

Till

Transcortin

Cortisol

Time

Transcoblamin

Cobalamin (vitamin B12)

 

Major normal variants of hemoglobin

A

Adult hemoglobin

H

Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2)

F

Fetal Hemoglobin (HbF)

G

Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C)

P

Portland

G

Gower I

G

Gower II

 

Factors stimulating/assisting erythropoiesis

 

(1) Tissue hypoxia

 

 

(2) Erythropoietin (EPO)

 

 

(3) Nutritional factors

 

 

 

Protein and amino acids

 

 

 

Vitamin B12 and Folic acid

 

 

 

Other vitamins

 

 

 

Vitamin B6

 

 

 

Vitamin B2

 

 

 

Nicotinic acid (niacin)

 

 

 

Vitamin C

 

 

 

Vitamin A

 

 

 

Vitamin E

 

 

Minerals

 

 

 

Iron

 

 

 

Copper

 

 

 

Cobalt

 

 

(4) Other hormones

 

 

 

Androgens

 

 

 

Estrogens

 

 

 

Thyroxine, Cortisol, Growth hormone

 

ABO system

 

Blood type

Agglutinins

 

O

Anti-A & Anti-B

 

A

Anti-B

 

B

Anti-A

 

AB

None

 

ABO Blood Groups: genotype and phenotype

 

Phenotype

Genotype

Antibody

Forward type patient

Cell with

Back type patient

Serum with

 

 

 

Anti-A

Anti-B

A cells

B cells

A

AO, AA

Anti-B

Positive

Positive

Positive

Positive

B

BO, BB

Anti-A

Negative

Negative

Negative

Negative

AB

AB

None

Positive

Positive

Positive

Positive

O

OO

Anti-A, Anti-B

Negative

Negative

Negative

Negative

 

ABO Red Cells Compatibility

Patient blood type

A

B

AB

O

A

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

B

No

No

No

No

O

No

No

No

No

AB

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Blood Component Therapy

W

Whole Blood

P

Packed Red Cells

W

White-cell-poor Red cells

W

Washed Red Cells

F

Frozen Red Cells

P

Platelets

G

Granulocytes

F

Fresh Frozen Plasma

C

Cryoprecipitate

C

Clotting Factor Concentrate

A

Albumin

 

Elements of the blood

Cell Normal

% of WBC

Average ( cells/ μl)

Range( cells/ μl)

Total WBC

 

9000

4,000-11,000

Neutrophils

50-70

5400

3000-6000

Eosinophils

1-4

275

150- 300

Basophils

 

35

0–100

Lymphocytes

20-40

2750

1500-4000

Monocytes

5-8

540

300–600

Erythrocytes

 

 

 

Females

 

4.8 million

 

Males

 

5.4 million

 

Platelets (thrombocytes)

 

300,000

200,000–500,000

 

Plasma components

 

Water

91.5% of plasma volume

 

Proteins 

7.0%

 

 

Total (S)

6.0-8.0 g/dL

 

 

Albumin (S)

3.5-5.0 g/dL

 

 

Globulin (S)

2.3-3.5 g/dL

 

 

Fibrinogen

0.2-0.4 g/dL

 

Glucose (fasting)

70-110 mg/dL

 

Cholesterol (S)

120 –220 mg/dL (P)

 

Cholesterol esters

60 – 70% of total cholesterol

 

Lipids, total (S)

450 – 1000 mg/dL

 

Bilirubin (S)

up to 0.4 mg/dL – conjugated

Up to 1.0 mg/dL - conjugated & free

 

Creatinine (S)

0.6-1.5 mg/dL

 

Urea nitrogen (BUN)

8-25 mg/dL

 

Uric acid (S)

Women  2.3-6.6 mg/dL

Men 3.6-8.5 mg/dL

 

Lactic acid (B)

0.5-2.2 meq/L

 

Pyruvic acid (P)

0-0.11 meq/L

 

Osmolality (S)

280 –296 mosm/kg of water

 

pH (B)

7.35-7.45

 

Bicarbonate

21-27 mEq/L

 

Calcium (S)

8.5-10.5 mg/dL; 4.3-5.3 mEq/L

 

Chloride (S)

100-108 mEq/L

 

Iron (S)

50 – 150 μg/dL (S)

 

Iodine, Protein –bound

3.5 – 8.μg/dL (S)

 

Magnesium (S)

1.5 – 2.0 mEq/dL

 

Phosphatase

1.8-2.6 mEq/dL

 

Potassium

4.0-4.8 mEq/dL

 

Sodium (S)

135 – 145 mEq/dL

 

Sulfate (S)

2.9 – 3.5 mg/dL

 

Some enzymes:

 

 

Amylase (S)

53 – 123 U/L

 

Phosphates, acid (S)

0-0.8 U/L (prostatic)

 

Phosphates, alkaline

13-39 U/L (adults)

 

Transaminase (S)

7 – 27 U/L (SGOT)

 

Important Carrier Proteins of Plasma

Some humoral mediators (lymphokines) produced by T- lymphocytes

Lymphokine

Regulatory functions

Interleukin-1

Activates resting T cell

Hematopoietic growth factor

Mediates inflammatory reactions

Endogenous pyrogen

Interleukin-2

Growth factor for activated T cells

Interleukin-3

Growth factor for stem cells

Granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (GM-CSF)

Promotes growth of hematopoietic cells of

different lineage,

Activates mature granulocytes& monocytes

Promotes neutrophil growth and function

Granulocyte CSF (G-CSF)

Promotes monocyte growth and function

Monocyte CSF (M-CSF)

Growth factor for activated B cells and resting T cell

Interleukin-4

Enhances cytotoxic T cells

Interleukin –6

Induces differentiation of B cells to plasma cell

Interferon (alpha, beta, gamma)

Promotes megakaryocyte and other hematopoietic cell growth

Tumor necrosis factor

Antiviral activity? I NK activity

Suppresses hematopoietic cell growth,

Direct cytotoxin to some tumors cells,

Stimulates production of lymphokines,

Activates macrophages, Mediates

inflammatory reaction

Mediates septic shock

 

Hemostasis

L

1. Local vasoconstriction

F

2. Formation of a platelet aggregate (platelet aggregation)

F

3. Formation of a blood clot

R

4. Retraction of clot

D

5. Dissolution of clot

 

Stages of hemostasis

V

1 Vasoconstriction

P

2 Platelet aggregations

B

3 Blood Coagulation

C

4 Clot retraction

D

5 Dissolution of clot (Fibrinolysis)

 

Coagulation factors

 

 

Common name

Other names

 

I

Fibrinogen

 

 

II

Prothrombin

 

 

III

Thromboplastin

 

 

IV

Calcium

 

 

V

Proaccelerin

Labile factor

 

VII

Proconvertin

Stable factor

 

VIII

Antihemophilic factor (AHF)

Antihemophilic globulin

Antihemophilic factor A

 

IX

Plasma thromboplastic component

Christmas factor

Antihemophilic factor B

 

X

Stuart power factor

 

 

XI

Plasma thromboplastin antecedent

Antihemophilic factor C

 

XII

Hageman factor

Glass factor

 

XIII

Fibrin stabilizing factor

Laki-Lorand factor

 

HMW-K

High molecular weight kininogen

Fitzgerald factor

 

Pre-Ka

Prekallikrein

Fletcher factor

 

Ka

Kallikrein

 

 

PL

Platelet phospholipid

 

 

Disorders of hemostasis

 

A.    Excessive bleeding

 

 

 

 (a) Vitamin K deficiency

 

 

 

 (b) Hemophilia

 

 

 

(i) Hemophilia A

 

 

 

(ii) Hemophilia B

 

 

 

(iii) Hemophilia C

 

 

(c) Thrombocytopenia

 

B.     Thromboembolic conditions

 

 

 

 (1) Endothelial injury

 

 

 

 (2) Alterations in normal blood flow

 

 

 

 (3) Hypercoagulability

 

 

 

(a) Inherited

 

 

 

(b) Inherited

 

Specialized cells or conducting cells:

Some

Sinoatarial Node (SA node): Pacemaker of the Heart

Are

Atrial Bundles

Arrogant

Atrioventricular Node

Bosses

Bundle of His

 

Components of the Electrocardiogram

Pretty

P wave

Queen

QRS Complex

Played

PR interval

Some

S-T segment

Trick

T wave

Anatomical location for best hearing the heart sounds

M

Mitral valve

The mitral valve is best heard in the mid-clavicular line of the 4th-5th left intercostals space.

T

Tricuspid valve

The tricuspid valve in the 5th interspace at the left sternal edge.

A

Aortic valve

The aortic valve in the 2nd interspace at the right sternal edge.

P

Pulmonary valve

The pulmonary valve in the 2nd interspace at the left sternal edge.

 

Heart valves defects

 

M

Mitral stenosis

M

Mitral insufficiency

A

Aortic stenosis

A

Aortic insufficiency

M

Mitral valve prolapsed

B

Bicuspid and aortic semilunar valves damaged inRheumatic fever

 

Factors influencing Venous return

 

Some

Sympathetic Activity

Sikh

Skeletal Muscle Activity

Visitors

Venous Valves

Raised

Respiratory Activity

Concern

Cardiac Suction

 

Factors influencing cardiac output

Please

Parasympathetic stimulation

Send

Sympathetic stimulation

Empty

Exercise

Tumbler

Training

Pot

Posture (Gravity)

 

Vessels included in the microcirculation are:

To

Terminal arterioles

My

Meta -arterioles

Aunt

Arterioles

And

Arteriovenous anastomoses

Cute

Capillaries

Parents

Post capillary venules

 

Factors affecting the blood pressure

A

 

Age

S

 

Sleep and exercise

G

 

Gravity

 

 

 

a. Direct effect

 

 

 

b. Indirect effect

E

 

Emotion and stress

O

 

Other factors

 

Rarely

 

Respiration

 

Visitors

 

Valsalva maneuver

 

Pay

 

Pregnancy

 

Full

 

Full bladder

 

Dues

 

Distensibility and capacitance of blood vessels

 

Blood flow through the circulatory system - Seven Sections

H

1. Heart as a pump; elastic arteries as pressure reservoirs

C

2. Cushioning vessels

R

3. Resistance vessels

S

4. Sphincter vessels

E

5. Exchange vessels

S

6. Shunt vessels (Not found in all tissues)

C

7. Capacitance vessels

 

Circulatory Shock - Classification

H

1. Hypovolemic shock

 

 

 (a) Loss of blood

 

 

 (b) Loss of water and electrolytes

 

 

 (c) Loss of plasma

C

2. Cardiogenic shock

 

 

 (a) Myocardial infarction

 

 

(b) Cardiomyopathy

 

 

(c) Inadequate coronary blood flow and ischemia

S

3 Septic shock

N

4. Neurogenic shock

 

 

 (a) Deep general anesthesia

 

 

(b) Spinal anesthesia

 

 

(c) Brain damage

A

5. Anaphylactic shock

 

 

 (a) Increase in vascular capacity

 

 

(b) Dilatation of arterioles

 

 

(c) Greatly increased capillary permeability

 

 

Essential hypertension - Risk factors

F

(1) Family history

A

(2) Advancing age

R

(3) Race

H

(4) High salt intake

O

(5) Obesity

E

(6) Excess alcohol consumption

U

(9) Use of oral contraceptive drugs

 

Types of hypertension

 

 

I. Essential hypertension

 

 

 

II. Secondary hypertension

 

R

 

 

Renal

 

A

 

 

Acute glomerulonephritis

 

C

 

 

Chronic renal disease

 

P

 

 

Polycystic disease

 

Receives

 

 

Renal artery stenosis

 

Rare

 

 

Renal vasculitis

 

Reward

 

 

Renin-producing tumors

E

 

 

Endocrine

 

A

 

 

Adrenocortical hyperfunction (Cushing syndrome, primary aldosteronism)

 

E

 

 

Exogenous hormones (glucocorticoids, estrogen, sympathomimetics)

 

P

 

 

Pheochromocytoma

 

A

 

 

Acromegaly

 

H

 

 

Hypothyroidism (myxedema)

 

H

 

 

Hyperthyroidism

 

P

 

 

Pregnancy-induced

C

 

 

Cardiovascular

 

C

 

 

Coarctation of aorta

 

P

 

 

Polyarteritis

 

I

 

 

Increased intravascular volume

 

I

 

 

Increased cardiac output

 

R

 

 

Rigidity of the aorta

N

 

 

Neurologic

 

P

 

 

Psychogenic

 

I

 

 

Increased intracranial pressure

 

S

 

 

Sleep apnea

 

A

 

 

Acute stress, including surgery

 


 

Chapter 4 : Respiratory system

 

Functions of Respiratory System

Wealthy

1 Warming and humidification of the inspired air

Father

2. Filtration and cleaning: Mucous secreted by the cells of the conducting zone serves

Died

3. Distribute air to the gas exchange surface of the lung.

 

Chemoreceptors:

Central

Central chemoreceptors

Post

Peripheral chemoreceptors

 

 

Carotid bodies

 

 

Aortic bodies

Office

Other receptors:

 

 

Lung stretch receptors

 

 

Irritant receptors

 

 

J- Receptors (Juxtacapillery receptors)

 

 

Hypoxia

Having

 

 (1) Hypoxic hypoxia

 

Lady

 

(a) Low alveolar PO2

 

Raj

 

 (b) Reduced ventilation (Hypoventilation)

 

Rani

 

 (c) Reduced diffusing capacity

 

Lies

 

 (d) Low ventilation-perfusion ratio

 

Always

 

 (e) Arteriovenous shunt

A

 

 (2) Anemic hypoxia

Solitary

 

 (3) Stagnant hypoxia

Hotel

 

 (4) Histotoxic hypoxia

 

Methods of oxygen administration

C

 (1) Cannula (intranasal tube)

M

 (2) Mask

O

 (3) Oxygen tent

Moga

 (4) Mechanical ventilator

 

Disorders of the respiratory system

P

Pulmonary edema

C

Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)

E

Emphysema

C

Chronic bronchitis

A

Asthma

 


 

Chapter 4 : Digestive System

 

Primary Digestive Organs

 

Primary digestive organs

M

 

i. Mouth

P

 

ii. Pharynx

E

 

iii. Esophagus

S

 

iv. Stomach

S

 

v. Small intestine

L

 

vi. Large intestine.

 

Accessory Digestive Organs

T

 

i. Teeth

T

 

ii. Tongue

S

 

iii. Salivary glands

E

 

iv. Exocrine part of pancreas

L

 

v. Liver

G

 

vi. Gallbladder

 

Wall of gastrointestinal tract

M

 

1. Mucus layer

 

 

Every

 

i. Epithelial lining

 

Lady

 

ii. Lamina propria

 

Married

 

iii. Muscularis mucosa.

S

 

2. Submucus layer

 

M

 

3. Muscular layer

 

 

In

 

i. Inner oblique layer

 

My

 

ii. Middle circular layer

 

Office

 

iii. Outer longitudinal layer.

S [Double MS]

 

4. Serous or fibrous layer.

 

 

Salivary glands

 

Major glands

Police

 

1. Parotid glands

Station

 

2. Submaxillary or submandibular glands

Shimla

 

3. Sublingual glands.

 

Minor glands

Low

 

1. Lingual Mucus Glands

Lying

 

2. Lingual Serous Glands

Basti

 

3. Buccal Glands

Lures

 

4. Labial Glands

People

 

5. Palatal Glands

 

 

Salivary enzymes

A

Amylase

M

Maltase

L

Lingual lipase

L

Lysozyme

C

Carbonic anhydrase

K

Kallikrein

 

Salivary – Nonenzyme organic constituents

M

 

Mucin

A

 

Albumin

P

 

Prolin rich proteins

L

 

Lactoferrin

I

 

IgA

B

 

Blood group antigens

F

 

Free amino acids

N

 

Nonprotein nitrogen

 

U

 

Urea

 

U

 

Uric

 

A

 

Acid

 

C

 

Creatinine

 

X

 

Xanthine

 

H

 

Hypoxanthine

 

Salivary – Inorganic constituents

 

S

Sodium

C

Calcium

P

Potassium

B

Bicarbonate

B

Bromide

C

Chloride

F

Fluoride

P

Phosphate

 

Hyposalivation

 

1. Temporary hyposalivation

Every

 

i. Emotional conditions like fear.

Female

 

ii. Fever.

Delivers

 

iii. Dehydration.

 

2. Permanent hyposalivation

Supreme

 

i. Sialolithiasis (obstruction of salivary duct).

Court

 

ii. Congenital absence or hypoplasia of salivary glands

Bar

 

iii. Bell palsy (paralysis of facial nerve).

 

parts of stomach

 

 

Continued

1.     Cardiac region

From

2. Fundus

Back

3. Body or corpus

Page

4. Pyloric region.

 

Glands of the stomach

 

Farid

1. Fundic glands or main gastric glands or oxyntic glands

Pay

2. Pyloric glands

Commission

3. Cardiac glands

 

Cells of fundic glands

 

C

1. Chief cells or pepsinogen cells

P

2. Parietal cells or oxyntic cells

M

3. Mucus neck cells

Entering

4. Enterochromaffin (EC) cells or Kulchitsky cells

Etawah

5. Enterochromaffin like (ECL) cells.

 

 

i. Gelatinase: Degrades type I and type V gela tin

and type IV and V collagen (which are proteoglycans

in meat) into peptides

ii. Urase: Acts on urea and produces ammonia

iii. Gastric amylase: Degrades starch (but its action

is insignificant)

iv. Rennin: Curd


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