DoctorKC’s

Physiology Made Easy
Editor : Saksham Chaudhry


 

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Contents

 

 

Page

01

Homeostasis

3

02

Cell Physiology

7

03

Integumentary System

14

04

Nervous System

16

05

Sensory system

19

06

Muscular System

21

07

Blood Physiology

23

08

Cardiovascular System

29

09

Immunity

33

10

Urinary System

35

11

Respiratory System

36

12

Gastrointestinal System

38

13

Nutrition

41

14

Endocrine System

55

15

Male Reproductive System

56

16

Female Reproductive System

58

17

Pregnancy and Birth

60

18

Genetics and Inheritance

62

19

Development

63

Syllabus - AIIMS

68

 


 

Chapter 01 : Homeostasis

 

Homeostasis is a set of processes by which the body regulates its internal environment. Homeostasis in a general sense refers to stability, balance or equilibrium. Maintaining a stable internal environment requires constant monitoring and adjustments as conditions change. This adjusting of physiological systems within the body is called homeostatic regulation.

 

Homeostatic regulation involves three parts or mechanisms:-

 

Receptor

 

Control center

 

Effector

 

The receptor receives information about change in the environment.

The control center or integration center receives and processes information from the receptor.

The effector responds to the commands of the control center by either suppressing or boosting the stimulus.

 

In body control of temperature :-

 

Brain is the control center

 

Receptor is our body's temperature sensors

 

Effector is our blood vessels and sweat glands in our skin

 

Because the internal and external environment of the body are constantly changing and adjustments must be made continuously to stay around the set point, homeostasis is considered a dynamic equilibrium.

 

Positive and Negative Feedback

 

 

A change in variable elicits two main types of feedback

 

Negative feedback: System responds to reverse the direction of change. Reversal of the direction of change contributes to homeostasis.

 

Positive feedback: System amplifies the change in the variable. This boosting process brings about a change. Hence it does not result in homeostasis.

 

Negative feedback is an ongoing process in body systems. Positive feedback is triggered in special situations, like childbirth or accident.

Properties of Homeostatic systems

 

Ultra-stable - System is capable of testing which way its variables should be adjusted

 

Whole  organization  (internal,  structural,  and  functional)  contributes  to  maintenance of balance.

 

Homeostasis altered by :

N

Nutrition

T

Toxins

P

Psychological

P

Physical

G

Genetic/Reproductive:

M

Medical

 

Homeostatic control

Some

Stimulus– produces a change to a variable (the factor being regulated).

Rotareans

Receptor– detects the change. The receptor monitors the environment and responds to change (stimuli).

Invited

Input– information travels along the (afferent) pathway to the control center. The control center determines the appropriate response and course of action.

On

Output– information sent from the control center travels down the (efferent) pathway to the effector.

Ramp

Response– a response from the effector balances out the original stimulus to maintain homeostasis.

 


Homoeostatic Controlled systems

C

Core body temperature

B

Blood glucose

P

Plasma ionized calcium

B

Blood partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide

B

Blood oxygen content

A

Arterial blood pressure

E

Extracellular sodium concentration

E

Extracellular potassium concentration

V

Volume of body water

E

Extracellular fluid pH

 

Physiological Regulation

 

Intracellular Regulation

 

 

Control by Local Chemical Factors

 

 

Metabolic auto-regulation of blood flow

 

 

Prostaglandins

 

Intrinsic Regulation or autoregulation

 

Extrinsic Regulation - control by hormones and/or nerves

 

Body Systems and their parts

 

C

 

Circulation

 

 

H

 

 Heart

 

 

B

 

Blood vessels

 

 

B

 

Blood

 

D

 

Digestive system

 

 

M

 

Mouth

 

 

P

 

Pharynx

 

 

E

 

Esophagus

 

 

S

 

Stomach

 

 

S

 

Small intestine

 

 

L

 

Large intestine

 

 

S

 

Salivary glands

 

 

P

 

Pancreas

 

 

L

 

Liver

 

 

G

 

Gallbladder

 

R

 

Respiratory system

 

 

N

 

Nose

 

 

P

 

Pharynx

 

 

L

 

Larynx

 

 

T

 

Trachea

 

 

B

 

Bronchi

 

 

L

 

Lungs

 

U

 

Urinary system

 

 

K

 

Kidneys

 

 

U

 

Ureters

 

 

U

 

Urinary bladder

 

 

U

 

Urethra

 

S

 

Skeletal system

 

 

B

 

Bones

 

 

C

 

Cartilage

 

 

J

 

Joints

 

M

 

Muscle system

 

 

 

 

Skeletal muscle

 

I

 

Integumentary system

 

 

S

 

Skin

 

 

H

 

Hair

 

 

N

 

Nails

 

I

 

Immune system

 

 

L

 

Leukocytes

 

 

T

 

Thymus

 

 

B

 

Bone marrow

 

 

T

 

Tonsils

 

 

A

 

Adenoids,

 

 

L

 

Lymph nodes

 

 

S

 

Spleen

 

 

A

 

Appendix

 

 

G

 

Gut-associated lymphoid tissue

 

S

 

Skin-associated lymphoid tissue

 

M

 

Muscosa associated lymphoid tissue

N

 

Nervous system

 

 

Binny

 

Brain

 

 

Sending

 

Spinal cord

 

 

Paper

 

Peripheral nervous system.

 

Sheets

 

Special sense organs

E

 

Endocrine system

 

 

H

 

Hypothalamus,

 

 

P

 

Pituitary

 

 

T

 

Thyroid

 

 

P

 

Parathyroids

 

 

A

 

Adrenals

 

 

P

 

Pancreas

 

 

K

 

Kidney

 

 

I

 

Intestine

 

 

H

 

Heart

 

 

T

 

Thymus

 

 

P

 

Pineal

 

R

 

Reproductive system

 

 

 

Male:

 

T

 

 

Testis

 

P

 

 

Prostate

 

S

 

 

Seminal vesicles

 

B

 

 

Bulbourethral glands

 

A

 

`

Associated ducts

 

 

 

` Female:

 

O

 

 

Ovary

 

O

 

 

Oviduct

 

U

 

 

Uterus

 

V

 

 

Vagina

 

B

 

 

Breast.

 


 

Chapter 02 : Cell Physiology

Types of human physiology

Common

1.      Cell physiology

Sense

2.      Special physiology

Saves

3.      Systemic physiology

People

4.      Pathophysiology

 

Levels of Organisation

 

A

Atom

M

Molecule

M

Macromolecule

O

Organelles

C

Cell

T

Tissue

O

Organ

S

System

H

Human body

 

Life processes

 

M

Metabolism

E

Excitability

C

Conductivity

C

Contractility

G

Growth

D

Differentiation

R

Reproduction

 

Elements in Human body

 

H

Hydrogen

C

Carbon

N

Nitrogen

O

Oxygen

S

Sodium

M

Magnesium

P

Phosphorus

S

Sulfur

C

Chlorine

P

Potassium

C

Calcium

 

Characteristics of life

 

Chief

Cells

Minister

Metabolism

Ganesh

Growth

Rao

Reproduction

Insulted

Irritability

A

Adaptation

Member

Movement

 

Extracellular fluid

 

Out of total volume of water in the body, about 2/3 is within cells or intracellular; remaining 1/3 is Extracellular fluid.

The cells take up oxygen and nutrients from the extracellular fluid. Metabolic waste products are also into the same fluid.

Extracellular fluid is divided into 2 components :-

1.      Interstitial fluid

2.      Circulating blood plasma

The plasma and cellular elements of the blood, mainly red blood cells, constitute Total blood volume.

Extracellular fluid surrounding the cells, which is outside vascular system, is interstitial fluid.

 

Division of Body weight

Proteins and relared sunstances

18%

Minerals

7%

Fat

15%

Intracellular water

40%

Intravascular extracellular fluid

5%

Interstitial fluid

15%

The total blood volume is about 8% of the body weight.

 

Measurement of Solutes – Units

Mole

The amount of a chemical substance that contains as many elementary entities, e.g., atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, or photons, as there are atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12 (12C), the isotope of carbon with relative atomic mass 12 by definition. Each mole has 6 × 10 23 molecules.

Millimole

1/1,000 of a mole

Micromole

1/1000,000 of a mole

Equivalent

1 mole divided by valency

1M solution

Contains solute 1 mole/litre

1N solution

Contains solute 1 equivalent/litre

 

Properties of water solvent

 

 

1.      Water has a high surface tension

 

2.      Water has a high heat of vaporization and heat capacity

 

3.      ater has a high dielectric constant

 

Electrolytes

 

Water is an excellent biological fluid that provides optimal heat transfer and conduction of current.

 

Electrolytes  (eg, NaCl) are molecules that dissociate in water to their cation (Na + ) and anion (Cl – ) equivalents.

 

Because of the net charge on water molecules, these electrolytes tend not to reassociate in water.

 

Important electrolytes in physiologyinclude Na+ , K+ , Ca++ , Mg++ , Cl , and HCO--- .

 

Electrolytes and other charged compounds (eg, proteins) are unevenly distributed in the body fluids.

 

These separations play an important role in physiology.

 

pH and Buffering

 

pH is an inverse measure of acidity of a solution; higher the acidity lower the pH

 

pH is base 10 logarithm of the reciprocal of hydrogen ion concentration.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The maintenance of a stable hydrogen ion concentration ([H + ]) in body fluids is essential to life. The  pH  of a solution is defined as the logarithm to the base 10 of the reciprocal of the H +  concentration ([H + ]), ie, the negative logarithm of the [H + ]. The pH of water at 25 °C, in which H +  and OH –  ions are present in equal numbers, is 7.0 (Figure 1–2). For each pH unit less than 7.0, the [H + ] is increased tenfold; for each pH unit above 7.0, it is decreased tenfold. In the plasma of healthy in- dividuals, pH is slightly alkaline, maintained in the narrow range of 7.35 to 7.45. Conversely, gastric fluid pH can be quite acidic (on the order of 2.0) and pancreatic secretions can be quite alkaline (on the order of 8.0). Enzymatic activity and protein structure are frequently sensitive to pH; in any given body or cellular compartment, pH is maintained to allow for maximal enzyme/protein efficiency. Molecules that act as H +  donors in solution are considered acids, while those that tend to remove H +  from solutions are considered bases. Strong acids (eg, HCl) or bases (eg, NaOH) dissociate completely in water and thus can most change the [H + ] in solution. In physiological compounds, most acids or bases are considered “weak,” that is, they contribute relatively few H +  or take away relatively few H +  from solution. Body pH is stabilized by the  buffering capacity  of the body fluids. A buffer  is a substance that has the ability to bind or release H + in solution, thus keeping the pH of the solution relatively con- stant despite the addition of considerable quantities of acid or base. Of course there are a number of buffers at work in bio- logical fluids at any given time. All buffer pairs in a homoge- nous solution are in equilibrium with the same [H + ]; this is known as the  isohydric principle.  One outcome of this prin- ciple is that by assaying a single buffer system, we can under- stand a great deal about all of the biological buffers in that system.

When acids are placed into solution, there is a dissociation of some of the component acid (HA) into its proton (H + ) and free acid (A – ). This is frequently written as an equation:

 

Tissues in the human body

Earning

Epithelial

Members

Muscle

Never

Nervous

Come

Connective tissues

Cellular adaptation

 

A

 

Atrophy

 

 

P

 

Physiological Atrophy

 

 

E

 

Endocrine Atrophy

 

 

N

 

Neuropathic Atrophy

 

 

D

 

Disuse Atrophy

 

 

N

 

Nutritional Atrophy

 

 

O

 

Other Types of Atrophies

 

 

 

 

Skeletal muscle atrophy

 

 

 

 

Pressure atrophy

 

 

 

 

Irradiation atrophy

H

 

Hypoplasia

H

 

Hypertrophy

H

 

Hyperplasia

M

 

Metaplasia

D

 

Dysplasia

 

Specialized Cells of the Human Body

N

Nerve cells (neurons)

 

E

Epithelial cells

 

E

Exocrine cells

 

E

Endocrine cells

 

B

Blood Cells

 

 

Erythrocytes

 

 

Leucocytes

 

Membrane proteins

 

C

Channel proteins

T

Transport proteins

R

Recognition proteins

A

Adhesion proteins

R

Receptor proteins

E

Electron transfer proteins

 

 

Membrane Transport

 

Daily

Diffusion down a concentration gradient

Motion

Movement along electrical gradient

Can

Carrier- Mediated Transport

Fund

Facilitated Diffusion

Visitors

Vesicular Transport

 

 

 

Cytoplasmic organelles

R

Ribosomes

 

E

Endoplasmic reticulum

 

 

 

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

 

 

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

G

Golgi apparatus

 

L

Lysosomes

 

P

Peroxisomes

 

M

Mitochondria

 

C

Centrosome

 

C

Centrioles

 

C

Cytoskeleton

 

 

 

Microfilaments

 

 

Microtubules

 

Biological membranes

 

Passion

1.      Plasma membrane (mammals)

Never

2.      Nuclear membrane

Occurs

3.      Outer mitochondrial membrane

In

4.      Inner mitochondrial membrane

Every

5.      Endoplasmic reticulum

Man

6.      Myelin

 

Chemical Composition of the Membranes

 

Let

 

(a) Lipids

 

 

Few

 

1. Fatty acids

 

 

Guys

 

2. Glycerophospholipids

 

 

 

 

Phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin)

 

 

 

 

Phosphatidylcholine (Lecithin)

 

 

 

 

Phosphatidylserine

 

Spend

 

3. Sphingolipids

 

 

 

 

Sphingomyelin

 

 

 

 

Cerebrosides

 

 

 

 

Gangliosides

 

Cents

 

4. Cholesterol

Public

 

 (b) Proteins

 

I

 

1. Integral membrane proteins (intrinsic membrane proteins)

 

Paid

 

2. Peripheral membrane proteins (extrinsic proteins)

 

Them

 

3. Transmembrane proteins

Come

 

 (c) Carbohydrates

 

 

 

 

Concanavalin

 

 

 

 

Glycophorin

Daily

 

(d) Additional Special Features

 

 

 

 

(a) Lipid rafts

 

 

 

 

(b) Caveolae

 

Special Structural Characteristics of Red Cells Membranes

 

 

1. Integral proteins

 

 

 (a) Glycophorin and

 

 

(b) Band-3-Protein.

 

2. Peripheral proteins

 

 

Spectrin

 

 

Actin

 

 

Ankyrin

 

Transport Systems

 

India

1. Ion Channels

 

 

a. Ligand gated channels

 

 

b. Voltage gated channels

Is

2. Ionophores

 

 

(a) Mobile ion carriers

 

 

(b) Channel formers

Winning

3. Water Channels (Aquaporins)

Gold

4. Gap Junction

 

Types of Transport Mechanisms

 

 

 (a) Passive or simple diffusion

 

 

Water

 

 

Gases

 

 

Pentose sugars

 

 (b) Facilitated diffusion

 

 

D-fructose absorbed from intestine

 

(c) Active transport

 

 

Protein pumps

 

 

Vesicular transport

 

 

 

Exocytosis

 

 

 

 

(i) Can attach to the cell surface and become peripheral proteins, e.g. antigens.

 

 

 

 

(ii) They can become part of extracellular matrix, e.g. collagen and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)

 

 

 

 

(iii) Hormones like insulin, parathormone (PTH) and catecholamines

 

 

 

Endocytosis

 

 

 

(i) Phagocytosis

 

 

 

(ii) Pinocytosis

 

 

 

 

(a) Fluid phase pinocytosis

 

 

 

 

(b) Receptor mediated absorptive pinocytosis

 

Factors affecting net diffusion

 

Can

1.      Concentration gradient

Easily

2.      Electrical potential

Handle

3.      Hydrostatic pressure gradient

Two

4.      Temperature

Parties

5.      Permeability coefficient

 

Parts of the Cell

 

partsofcell.jpg

 

 

Cell Membrane

 

Chloroplast

 

Cytoplasm

 

Endoplasmic Reticulum

 

Golgi Body/Complex

 

Large Vacuole

 

Lysosome

 

Mitochondria

 

Nuclear Envelope

 

Nucleolus

 

Nucleus

 

Ribosome

 

Small Vacuole

 

Cell Wall

Chapter 03 : Integumentary System

 

Components

 

1.      Skin

2.      Subcutaneous tissue under the skin

3.      Hair

4.      Nails

5.      Assorted glands

 

Functions of Skin

 

1.      Protection of body from invading microorganisms;

2.      Regulation of body temperature through :-

i.                     Sweating

ii.                  Vasodilation

iii.                Shivering

iv.                Piloerection

3.      Regulation of ion balances in the blood

4.      Stimulation of mast cells alters blood flow and capillary permeability.

5.      Synthesis of vitamin D involved in calcium and phosphorus absorption needed for bone growth and repair.

6.      Hair on the skin filters the air into the nasal cavity.

7.      Pigmentation absorbs some dangerous radiation in sunlight

8.      DNA repair enzymes in skin reverse UV damage, thus prevent skin cancer.

 

Glands

 

1.      Sudoriferous glands – Sweat producing glands

2.      Sebaceous glands – Oil producing glands

3.      Ceruminous glands – Produce earwax

4.      Mammary glands – Produce milk.

 

Structure of nail

 

R

Root

N

Nail Bed

N

Nail Plate

E

Eponychium

P

Perionychium

H

Hyponychium

 

Skin

Skin comprises layers of tissues which guard underlying muscles and organs.

 

Skin has two layers – Epidermis and dermis.

skinlayers.jpg

Epidermis is the outermost layer of our skin. Being tough and resilient, epidermis protects the body from environment.

Epidermis is divided into :-

1.      Stratum corneum

2.      Stratum lucidum

3.      Stratum

4.      Stratum granulosum

5.      Stratum spinosum

6.      Stratum basale.

Chapter 04 : Nervous System

Components of the nervous system

 

National

Neurons

Defence

Dendrites

Academy

Axons

Gets

Glial cells or Neuroglial cells

Signal

Sensory endings

 

 

1. Exteroreceptors

 

 

2. Propioreceptors

 

 

3. Interoreceptors (visceroreceptors)

 

Fig 2.1 : Brain – Decision making

Fig 2.1 : Physiology of Brain

 

Classification of neurons

 

Two

Tonic or regular spiking

Patients

Phasic or bursting

For

Fast spiking

Treatment

Thin-spike

 

Nervous impulse – Stages

 

Do

Depolarization

Rascals

Repolarization

Help

Hyperpolarization

Rascals?

Refractory phase

 

 

Phases of the action potential

 

Road

Resting membrane potential (RMP)

Transport

Threshold potential

Under

Upstroke or rising phase

Open

Overshoot

Rumour

Repolarization phase

 

CHEMICAL NEUROTRANSMITTER (small, rapidly acting molecules)

A

Acetylcholine (Ach)

D

Dopamine

E

Epinephrine

N

Norepinephrine

S

Serotonin

H

Histamine

G

Glycine

G

Glutamate

A

Aspartate

G

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

 

Neuropeptides (large, slow-acting molecules)

 

B

Beta-endorphin

A

ACTH

M

MSH

T

TRH

G

GnRH

S

Somatostatin

V

VIP

C

CCK

G

Gastrin

S

Substance P

N

Neurotensin

L

Leucine

E

Enkephalin

M

Methionine enkephalin

M

Motilin

I

Insulin

G

Glucagons

A

Angiotensin-II

B

Bradykinin

V

Vasopressin

O

Oxytocin

C

Carnosine

B

Bombesin

 

Whole Muscle Contraction

 

 

Isotonic Contraction

 

 

Concentric contraction

 

 

Eccentric contraction

 

Isometric Contraction

 

ATP provider pathways

 

Come

1. Creatinine phosphate

On

2. Oxidative phosphorylation

Guys

3. Glycolysis

 


 

Chapter 05 : Sensory system

 

A sense is a physiological method of perception.

Human body has following senses :-

1.      Sight (vision)

2.      Hearing (audition)

3.      Taste (gustation)

4.      Smell (olfaction)

5.      Touch (somatosensation)

 

Each sense has a specific nervous system and a dedicated sense organ associated with it.

 

The sense of taste and sense of smell constitute Chemoreception. Specific receptors for chemical compounds produce an impulse which is sent to the brain and is registered as a certain taste or smell. Taste and Smell are chemical senses because the receptors they contain are sensitive to the chemicals in the food and air.

 

Taste

 

Sense of taste is perceived by taste buds and is conveyed via facial nerve (VII cranial), glossopharyngeal nerve (IX cranial), and Vagus nerve (X cranial). Facial nerve carries taste sensations from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue and soft palate. Glossopharyngeal nerve carries taste sensations from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue. A branch of the vagus nerve carries some taste sensations from the back of the oral cavity (pharynx and epiglottis). Information from these cranial nerves is processed by the gustatory system.

 

Taste buds on the tongue are situated on raised protrusions of the tongue surface called papillae.

 

Types of papillae

1. Filiform (thread-shape)

2. Fungiform (mushroom-shape)

3. Foliate (leaf-shape)

4. Circumvallate (ringed-circle)

 

All papillae except the filiform have taste buds on their surface.

Some taste buds act directly by ion channels, others act indirectly.

 

Types of Taste

1.      Salt

2.      Sour

3.      Bitter

4.      Sweet

5.      Umami (savory or meaty)

Smell

 

Smell is perceived in Nasopharynx. Airborne molecules diffuse into solution on moist epithelial surface of nasal passage. Impulse is carried by Olfactory nerve (I cranial). 347 functional smell receptor genes are identified.

 

Impulse is carried by mitral cells in the olfactory bulb to different parts of olfactory system in the brain.

 

Disorders of Olfaction

 

1.      Anosmia - Loss of the sense of smell.

2.      Phantosmia - Smelling odors that aren't really present.

3.      Dysosmia – Altered smell sensation.

 

 

 


 

Chapter 06 : Muscular System

 

Muscular system is the system of movement of the body and its organs. Muscles are controlled by nervous system; however, some muscles, like heart muscle, may be autonomous.

 

Muscle movement may be Voluntary (arms, legs, neck) or Involuntary (heart contraction, peristalsis).

 

Types of Muscles

 

1.      Smooth muscle – Non-striated involuntary muscles of :-

i.                    Oesophagus

ii.                  Stomach

iii.                Intestines

iv.                Bronchi

v.                  Uterus

vi.                Ureters

vii.              Bladder

viii.            Blood vessels

2.      Cardiac muscle – Striated involuntary muscle of Heart

3.      Skeletal muscle – Striated voluntary muscles of :-

i.                    Head and neck

ii.                  Trunk

iii.                Upper limb

iv.                Lower limb

 

Functions of Skeletal Muscles

 

1. Body support

2. Bone movement

3. Regulation of body temperature

4. Movement of cardiovascular and lymphatic vessels through contraction

5. Protection of internal organs and helps to stabilize joints

 

Types of Contractions

 

        1. Isometric contraction – Length of the muscle remains unchanged during contraction. Muscle becomes stiff.

 

        2. Isotonic contraction - Inertia is used to move or work. Muscle uses more energy. Contraction lasts longer than isometric contraction.

 

        3. Twitch - Exciting the nerve to a muscle or by passing electrical stimulus through muscle itself. Some fibers contract quickly while others contract slowly.

 

Muscle Atrophy - Causes

 

           

1. Aging

2. Cerebrovascular accident (stroke)

3. Spinal cord injury

4.      Peripheral nerve injury (peripheral neuropathy)

5.      Other injury

6.      Prolonged immobilization

7.      Osteoarthritis

8.      Rheumatoid arthritis

9.      Prolonged corticosteroid therapy

10.  Diabetes (diabetic neuropathy)

11.  Burns

12.  Poliomyelitis

13.  Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (als or lou gehrig's disease)

14.  Guillain-barre syndrome

15.  Muscular dystrophy

16.  Myotonia congenita

17.   Myotonic dystrophy

18.  Myopathy


 

 

Chapter 07 : Blood Physiology

Important Carrier Proteins of Plasma

 

 

Protein

Materials bound

Arun

Albumin

Fatty acids, bilirubin, many drugs, heme, thyroxine

Arora

Apolipoproteins

Triglycerides, phospholipidsmcholesterol

Has

Haptoglobin

Plasma hemoglobin from lysed red blood cells

Had

Hemopexin

Heme from plasma hemoglobin

Three

Transferrin

Iron

Cardiac

Ceruloplasmin

Copper

Pains

Prealbumin

Thyroxine, vitamin A

Till

Transcortin

Cortisol

Time

Transcoblamin

Cobalamin (vitamin B12)

 

Major normal variants of hemoglobin

 

A

Adult hemoglobin

H

Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2)

F

Fetal Hemoglobin (HbF)

G

Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C)

P

Portland

G

Gower I

G

Gower II

 

Factors stimulating/assisting erythropoiesis

 

 

(1) Tissue hypoxia

 

 

(2) Erythropoietin (EPO)

 

 

(3) Nutritional factors

 

 

 

Protein and amino acids

 

 

 

Vitamin B12 and Folic acid

 

 

 

Other vitamins

 

 

 

Vitamin B6

 

 

 

Vitamin B2

 

 

 

Nicotinic acid (niacin)

 

 

 

Vitamin C

 

 

 

Vitamin A

 

 

 

Vitamin E

 

 

Minerals

 

 

 

Iron

 

 

 

Copper

 

 

 

Cobalt

 

 

(4) Other hormones

 

 

 

Androgens

 

 

 

Estrogens

 

 

 

Thyroxine, Cortisol, Growth hormone

 

ABO system

 

 

Blood type

Agglutinins

 

O

Anti-A & Anti-B

 

A

Anti-B

 

B

Anti-A

 

AB

None

 

ABO Blood Groups: genotype and phenotype

 

Phenotype

Genotype

Antibody

Forward type patient

Cell with

Back type patient

Serum with

 

 

 

Anti-A

Anti-B

A cells

B cells

A

AO, AA

Anti-B

Positive

Positive

Positive

Positive

B

BO, BB

Anti-A

Negative

Negative

Negative

Negative

AB

AB

None

Positive

Positive

Positive

Positive

O

OO

Anti-A, Anti-B

Negative

Negative

Negative

Negative

 

ABO Red Cells Compatibility

 

Patient blood type

A

B

AB

O

A

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

B

No

No

No

No

O

No

No

No

No

AB

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

 

Blood Component Therapy

 

W

Whole Blood

P

Packed Red Cells

W

White-cell-poor Red cells

W

Washed Red Cells

F

Frozen Red Cells

P

Platelets

G

Granulocytes

F

Fresh Frozen Plasma

C

Cryoprecipitate

C

Clotting Factor Concentrate

A

Albumin

 

Elements of the blood

 

Cell Normal

% of WBC

Average ( cells/ μl)

Range( cells/ μl)

Total WBC

 

9000

4,000-11,000

Neutrophils

50-70

5400

3000-6000

Eosinophils

1-4

275

150- 300

Basophils

 

35

0–100

Lymphocytes

20-40

2750

1500-4000

Monocytes

5-8

540

300–600

Erythrocytes

 

 

 

Females

 

4.8 million

 

Males

 

5.4 million

 

Platelets (thrombocytes)

 

300,000

200,000–500,000

 

Plasma components

 

 

Water

91.5% of plasma volume

 

Proteins 

7.0%

 

 

Total (S)

6.0-8.0 g/dL

 

 

Albumin (S)

3.5-5.0 g/dL

 

 

Globulin (S)

2.3-3.5 g/dL

 

 

Fibrinogen

0.2-0.4 g/dL

 

Glucose (fasting)

70-110 mg/dL

 

Cholesterol (S)

120 –220 mg/dL (P)

 

Cholesterol esters

60 – 70% of total cholesterol

 

Lipids, total (S)

450 – 1000 mg/dL

 

Bilirubin (S)

up to 0.4 mg/dL – conjugated

Up to 1.0 mg/dL - conjugated & free

 

Creatinine (S)

0.6-1.5 mg/dL

 

Urea nitrogen (BUN)

8-25 mg/dL

 

Uric acid (S)

Women  2.3-6.6 mg/dL

Men 3.6-8.5 mg/dL

 

Lactic acid (B)

0.5-2.2 meq/L

 

Pyruvic acid (P)

0-0.11 meq/L

 

Osmolality (S)

280 –296 mosm/kg of water

 

pH (B)

7.35-7.45

 

Bicarbonate

21-27 mEq/L

 

Calcium (S)

8.5-10.5 mg/dL; 4.3-5.3 mEq/L

 

Chloride (S)

100-108 mEq/L

 

Iron (S)

50 – 150 μg/dL (S)

 

Iodine, Protein –bound

3.5 – 8.μg/dL (S)

 

Magnesium (S)

1.5 – 2.0 mEq/dL

 

Phosphatase

1.8-2.6 mEq/dL

 

Potassium

4.0-4.8 mEq/dL

 

Sodium (S)

135 – 145 mEq/dL

 

Sulfate (S)

2.9 – 3.5 mg/dL

 

Some enzymes:

 

 

Amylase (S)

53 – 123 U/L

 

Phosphates, acid (S)

0-0.8 U/L (prostatic)

 

Phosphates, alkaline

13-39 U/L (adults)

 

Transaminase (S)

7 – 27 U/L (SGOT)

 

Important Carrier Proteins of Plasma

 

Some humoral mediators (lymphokines) produced by T- lymphocytes

Lymphokine

Regulatory functions

Interleukin-1

Activates resting T cell

Hematopoietic growth factor

Mediates inflammatory reactions

Endogenous pyrogen

Interleukin-2

Growth factor for activated T cells

Interleukin-3

Growth factor for stem cells

Granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (GM-CSF)

Promotes growth of hematopoietic cells of

different lineage,

Activates mature granulocytes& monocytes

Promotes neutrophil growth and function

Granulocyte CSF (G-CSF)

Promotes monocyte growth and function

Monocyte CSF (M-CSF)

Growth factor for activated B cells and resting T cell

Interleukin-4

Enhances cytotoxic T cells

Interleukin –6

Induces differentiation of B cells to plasma cell

Interferon (alpha, beta, gamma)

Promotes megakaryocyte and other hematopoietic cell growth

Tumor necrosis factor

Antiviral activity? I NK activity

Suppresses hematopoietic cell growth,

Direct cytotoxin to some tumors cells,

Stimulates production of lymphokines,

Activates macrophages, Mediates

inflammatory reaction

Mediates septic shock

 

Haemostasis

 

L

1. Local vasoconstriction

F

2. Formation of a platelet aggregate (platelet aggregation)

F

3. Formation of a blood clot

R

4. Retraction of clot

D

5. Dissolution of clot

 

Stages of haemostasis

 

V

1 Vasoconstriction

P

2 Platelet aggregations

B

3 Blood Coagulation

C

4 Clot retraction

D

5 Dissolution of clot (Fibrinolysis)

 

Coagulation factors

 

 

 

Common name

Other names

 

I

Fibrinogen

 

 

II

Prothrombin

 

 

III

Thromboplastin

 

 

IV

Calcium

 

 

V

Proaccelerin

Labile factor

 

VII

Proconvertin

Stable factor

 

VIII

Antihemophilic factor (AHF)

Antihemophilic globulin

Antihemophilic factor A

 

IX

Plasma thromboplastic component

Christmas factor

Antihemophilic factor B

 

X

Stuart power factor

 

 

XI

Plasma thromboplastin antecedent

Antihemophilic factor C

 

XII

Hageman factor

Glass factor

 

XIII

Fibrin stabilizing factor

Laki-Lorand factor

 

HMW-K

High molecular weight kininogen

Fitzgerald factor

 

Pre-Ka

Prekallikrein

Fletcher factor

 

Ka

Kallikrein

 

 

PL

Platelet phospholipid

 

 

Disorders of haemostasis

 

 

A.    Excessive bleeding

 

 

 

 (a) Vitamin K deficiency

 

 

 

 (b) Hemophilia

 

 

 

(i) Hemophilia A

 

 

 

(ii) Hemophilia B

 

 

 

(iii) Hemophilia C

 

 

(c) Thrombocytopenia

 

B.     Thromboembolic conditions

 

 

 

 (1) Endothelial injury

 

 

 

 (2) Alterations in normal blood flow

 

 

 

 (3) Hypercoagulability

 

 

 

(a) Inherited

 

 

 

(b) Inherited

 


 

Chapter 08 : Cardiovascular System

Specialized cells or conducting cells

 

Some

Sinoatarial Node (SA node): Pacemaker of the Heart

Are

Atrial Bundles

Arrogant

Atrioventricular Node

Bosses

Bundle of His

 

Heart valves

They

Tricuspid

Purchased

Pulmonary

Same

Semilunar

Boots

Bicuspid

And

Aortic

Sandals

Semilunar

 

 

Components of the Electrocardiogram

 

Pretty

P wave

Queen

QRS Complex

Played

PR interval

Some

S-T segment

Trick

T wave

 

Anatomical location for best hearing the heart sounds

 

M

Mitral valve

The mitral valve is best heard in the mid-clavicular line of the 4th-5th left intercostals space.

T

Tricuspid valve

The tricuspid valve in the 5th interspace at the left sternal edge.

A

Aortic valve

The aortic valve in the 2nd interspace at the right sternal edge.

P

Pulmonary valve

The pulmonary valve in the 2nd interspace at the left sternal edge.

 

Heart valves defects

 

M

Mitral stenosis

M

Mitral insufficiency

A

Aortic stenosis

A

Aortic insufficiency

M

Mitral valve prolapsed

B

Bicuspid and aortic semilunar valves damaged inRheumatic fever

 

Factors influencing Venous return

 

Some

Sympathetic Activity

Sikh

Skeletal Muscle Activity

Visitors

Venous Valves

Raised

Respiratory Activity

Concern

Cardiac Suction

 

Factors influencing cardiac output

 

Please

Parasympathetic stimulation

Send

Sympathetic stimulation

Empty

Exercise

Tumbler

Training

Pot

Posture (Gravity)

 

Vessels included in the microcirculation are:

 

To

Terminal arterioles

My

Meta -arterioles

Aunt

Arterioles

And

Arteriovenous anastomoses

Cute

Capillaries

Parents

Post capillary venules

 

Factors affecting the blood pressure

 

A

 

Age

S

 

Sleep and exercise

G

 

Gravity

 

 

 

a. Direct effect

 

 

 

b. Indirect effect

E

 

Emotion and stress

O

 

Other factors

 

Rarely

 

Respiration

 

Visitors

 

Valsalva maneuver

 

Pay

 

Pregnancy

 

Full

 

Full bladder

 

Dues

 

Distensibility and capacitance of blood vessels

 

Blood flow through the circulatory system - Seven Sections

 

H

1. Heart as a pump; elastic arteries as pressure reservoirs

C

2. Cushioning vessels

R

3. Resistance vessels

S

4. Sphincter vessels

E

5. Exchange vessels

S

6. Shunt vessels (Not found in all tissues)

C

7. Capacitance vessels

 

Circulatory Shock – Classification

 

H

1. Hypovolemic shock

 

 

 (a) Loss of blood

 

 

 (b) Loss of water and electrolytes

 

 

 (c) Loss of plasma

C

2. Cardiogenic shock

 

 

 (a) Myocardial infarction

 

 

(b) Cardiomyopathy

 

 

(c) Inadequate coronary blood flow and ischemia

S

3 Septic shock

N

4. Neurogenic shock

 

 

 (a) Deep general anesthesia

 

 

(b) Spinal anesthesia

 

 

(c) Brain damage

A

5. Anaphylactic shock

 

 

 (a) Increase in vascular capacity

 

 

(b) Dilatation of arterioles

 

 

(c) Greatly increased capillary permeability

 

 

Essential hypertension - Risk factors

 

F

(1) Family history

A

(2) Advancing age

R

(3) Race

H

(4) High salt intake

O

(5) Obesity

E

(6) Excess alcohol consumption

U

(9) Use of oral contraceptive drugs

 

Types of hypertension

 

 

 

I. Essential hypertension

 

 

 

II. Secondary hypertension

 

R

 

 

Renal

 

A

 

 

Acute glomerulonephritis

 

C

 

 

Chronic renal disease

 

P

 

 

Polycystic disease

 

Receives

 

 

Renal artery stenosis

 

Rare

 

 

Renal vasculitis

 

Reward

 

 

Renin-producing tumors

E

 

 

Endocrine

 

A

 

 

Adrenocortical hyperfunction (Cushing syndrome, primary aldosteronism)

 

E

 

 

Exogenous hormones (glucocorticoids, estrogen, sympathomimetics)

 

P

 

 

Pheochromocytoma

 

A

 

 

Acromegaly

 

H

 

 

Hypothyroidism (myxedema)

 

H

 

 

Hyperthyroidism

 

P

 

 

Pregnancy-induced

C

 

 

Cardiovascular

 

C

 

 

Coarctation of aorta

 

P

 

 

Polyarteritis

 

I

 

 

Increased intravascular volume

 

I

 

 

Increased cardiac output

 

R

 

 

Rigidity of the aorta

N

 

 

Neurologic

 

P

 

 

Psychogenic

 

I

 

 

Increased intracranial pressure

 

S

 

 

Sleep apnea

 

A

 

 

Acute stress, including surgery

 


 

Chapter 09 : Immunity

 

The immune system is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend the body against attacks by foreign invaders. Such invaders are primarily microbes—tiny organisms such as bacteria, parasites, and fungi that can cause infections.

 

The Immune Barrier – Lines of defence

 

        1. First. Physical and chemical barriers

        i. Skin

        ii. Stomach acids

        iii. Mucus

        iv. Tears

        v. Vaginal opening

The last three mostly produce lysozyme to destroy harmful incoming pathogens.

         

        2. Second. Non-specific immune responses :-

        i. Marcrophages

        ii. Neutrophils

        iii. Interferons

        iv. Complement proteins

        v. Nonspecific defenses

        a. Fever

        b. Inflammatory response

 

         

        3. Third. Specific immune responses :-

        i. T Cells

        ii. B Cells

 

Lymphatic System - Functions

 

1.      Removal of excess fluids, lymph, from body tissues

2.      Absorption of fatty acids and subsequent transport of fat, chyle, to the circulatory system

3.      Formation of white blood cells (WBCs), and initiation of immunity through the formation of antibodies, lending specific resistance to pathogens.

 

Lymphatic Organs

 

 

Primary lymphatic organs

 

 

Red bone marrow

 

 

Thymus

 

Secondary Lymphatic Organs

 

 

Spleen

 

 

Lymph nodes

 

 

Tonsils

 

 

Peyer’s patches

 

Leukocytes

 

Eosinophils

Basophils

Neutrophils

Monocytes

Lymphocytes

Dendritic Cells

 

Defenses Against Infection

 

 

Innate Defense – first line of defense

 

 

Physical or Mechanical barriers

 

 

 

Skin

 

 

 

Mucus membranes

 

 

 

Mucociliary escalator

 

 

Chemical Defenses

 

 

 

Tears, saliva

 

 

 

Stomach acids

 

Non-specific responses to infection - 2nd line of defense

 

 

Inflammatory response

 

 

Complement System

 

 

Interferon in response to viral infection

 

Adaptive Defense (Specific Defense--third line of defense)

 

 

Lymphocytes

 

 

Plasma cells

 

 

Memory B cells

 

 

 


 

Chapter 10 : Urinary System

 

Urinary system filters out excess fluid and other substances from blood stream. Such excess fluid and other substances are passed out in form of Urine.

 

Urine is produced in kidneys, stored in urinary bladder, and passed out of urethra

 

Functions of kidneys

 

1.       Regulation of plasma ionic composition

2.       Regulation of plasma osmolarity

3.       Regulation of plasma volume

4.       Regulation of plasma hydrogen ion concentration (pH)

5.       Removal of metabolic waste products and foreign substances from the plasma

6.       Secretion of Hormones

 


 

Chapter 11 : Respiratory System

 

Functions of Respiratory System

 

Wealthy

1 Warming and humidification of the inspired air

Father

2. Filtration and cleaning: Mucous secreted by the cells of the conducting zone serves

Died

3. Distribute air to the gas exchange surface of the lung.

 

Chemoreceptors

 

Central

Central chemoreceptors

Post

Peripheral chemoreceptors

 

 

Carotid bodies

 

 

Aortic bodies

Office

Other receptors:

 

 

Lung stretch receptors

 

 

Irritant receptors

 

 

J- Receptors (Juxtacapillery receptors)

 

 

Hypoxia

 

Having

 

 (1) Hypoxic hypoxia

 

Lady

 

(a) Low alveolar PO2

 

Raj

 

 (b) Reduced ventilation (Hypoventilation)

 

Rani

 

 (c) Reduced diffusing capacity

 

Lies

 

 (d) Low ventilation-perfusion ratio

 

Always

 

 (e) Arteriovenous shunt

A

 

 (2) Anemic hypoxia

Solitary

 

 (3) Stagnant hypoxia

Hotel

 

 (4) Histotoxic hypoxia

 

Methods of oxygen administration

 

C

 (1) Cannula (intranasal tube)

M

 (2) Mask

O

 (3) Oxygen tent

Moga

 (4) Mechanical ventilator

 

Disorders of the respiratory system

P

Pulmonary edema

C

Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)

E

Emphysema

C

Chronic bronchitis

A

Asthma

 


 

Chapter 12 : Gastrointestinal System

Primary Digestive Organs

 

 

Primary digestive organs

M

 

i. Mouth

P

 

ii. Pharynx

E

 

iii. Esophagus

S

 

iv. Stomach

S

 

v. Small intestine

L

 

vi. Large intestine.

 

Accessory Digestive Organs

T

 

i. Teeth

T

 

ii. Tongue

S

 

iii. Salivary glands

E

 

iv. Exocrine part of pancreas

L

 

v. Liver

G

 

vi. Gallbladder

 

Wall of gastrointestinal tract

 

M

 

1. Mucus layer

 

 

Every

 

i. Epithelial lining

 

Lady

 

ii. Lamina propria

 

Married

 

iii. Muscularis mucosa.

S

 

2. Submucus layer

 

M

 

3. Muscular layer

 

 

In

 

i. Inner oblique layer

 

My

 

ii. Middle circular layer

 

Office

 

iii. Outer longitudinal layer.

S [Double MS]

 

4. Serous or fibrous layer.

 

 

Salivary glands

 

 

Major glands

Police

 

1. Parotid glands

Station

 

2. Submaxillary or submandibular glands

Shimla

 

3. Sublingual glands.

 

Minor glands

Low

 

1. Lingual Mucus Glands

Lying

 

2. Lingual Serous Glands

Basti

 

3. Buccal Glands

Lures

 

4. Labial Glands

People

 

5. Palatal Glands

 

 

Salivary enzymes

 

A

Amylase

M

Maltase

L

Lingual lipase

L

Lysozyme

C

Carbonic anhydrase

K

Kallikrein

 

Salivary – Nonenzyme organic constituents

 

M

 

Mucin

A

 

Albumin

P

 

Prolin rich proteins

L

 

Lactoferrin

I

 

IgA

B

 

Blood group antigens

F

 

Free amino acids

N

 

Nonprotein nitrogen

 

U

 

Urea

 

U

 

Uric

 

A

 

Acid

 

C

 

Creatinine

 

X

 

Xanthine

 

H

 

Hypoxanthine

 

Salivary – Inorganic constituents

 

S

Sodium

C

Calcium

P

Potassium

B

Bicarbonate

B

Bromide

C

Chloride

F

Fluoride

P

Phosphate

 

Hyposalivation

 

 

1. Temporary hyposalivation

Every

 

i. Emotional conditions like fear.

Female

 

ii. Fever.

Delivers

 

iii. Dehydration.

 

2. Permanent hyposalivation

Supreme

 

i. Sialolithiasis (obstruction of salivary duct).

Court

 

ii. Congenital absence or hypoplasia of salivary glands

Bar

 

iii. Bell palsy (paralysis of facial nerve).

 

Parts of stomach

 

 

Continued

1.     Cardiac region

From

2. Fundus

Back

3. Body or corpus

Page

4. Pyloric region.

 

Glands of the stomach

 

Farid

1. Fundic glands or main gastric glands or oxyntic glands

Pay

2. Pyloric glands

Commission

3. Cardiac glands

 

Cells of fundic glands

 

C

1. Chief cells or pepsinogen cells

P

2. Parietal cells or oxyntic cells

M

3. Mucus neck cells

Entering

4. Enterochromaffin (EC) cells or Kulchitsky cells

Etawah

5. Enterochromaffin like (ECL) cells.

 

 

Enzymes in Gastric juice

 

Pretty

 

Pepsin

 

Good

 

Gastric lipase

 

Actor

 

Additional enzymes

 

Get

 

i. Gelatinase

 

Unique

 

ii. Urase

 

Gifts

 

iii. Gastric amylase

 

Ready

 

iv. Rennin

 


 

Chapter 13 : Nutrition

 

Nutrition requirements

A.    Macronutrients

1.      Carbohydrates

2.      Proteins

3.      Fats

B.     Micronutrients

1.      Vitamins

2.      Minerals

 

Carbohydrates

 

Made up of three elements

1.      Carbon

2.      Hydrogen

3.      Oxygen

 

Classification

A.    Simple carbohysrates

1.                  Monosaccharides

i.                    Glucose

ii.                  Fructose

iii.                Galactose

2.                  Disaccharides

i.                    Sucrose

ii.                  Maltose

iii.                Lactose

B.     Polysachharides

i.                    Starch

ii.                  Fiber

 

Metabolism

1.      In the intestines, polysaccharides are broken into monosaccchorides including glucose.

2.      Glucose enters intestinal epithelium and then into the bloodstream.

3.      Glucose molecules are taken by glucose transporters and delivered into the cells of the body.

4.      In the cells glucose is oxidized for energy.

5.      Glucose provides substrates to other metabolic reactions

6.       Converted into glycogen for storage.

 

Sugars with corresponding alcohol

 

Girl

Glucose

Sorbitol

From

Fructose

Sorbitol and mannitol

Madras

Mannose

Mannitol

Gazing

Glyceraldehyde

Glycerol

Every

Erythrose

Erythritol

Entry

Ribose

Ribitol

Gate

Galactose

Dulci tol

 

Carbohydrates - Classification

 

1. Monosaccharides

 

 

Trioses

 

 

 

Glyceraldehyde

 

 

 

Dihydroxyacetone

 

 

Tetroses

 

 

 

 

Erythrose

 

 

 

Erythrulose

 

 

Pentoses

 

 

 

Ribose

 

 

 

Ribulose

 

 

Hexoses

 

 

 

Glucose

 

 

 

Fructose

 

2. Disaccharide

 

 

Maltose

 

 

 

Lactose

 

 

 

Sucrose

 

 

 

Lactulose

 

 

3. Oligosaccharides

 

4. Polysaccharides (Glycans)

 

 

a. Homopolysaccharides (homoglycans

 

 

 

Starch

 

 

 

Glycogen

 

 

 

Inulin

 

 

 

Cellulose

 

 

 

Dextrins

 

 

 

Dextrans

 

 

b. Heteropolysaccharides (heteroglycans)

 

 

 

Mucopolysaccharides (glycosaminoglycans)

 

General Properties

A

Asymmetric carbon

V

Van’t Hoff’s rule of ‘n’

S

Stereoisomerism

D

D-Series and L-Series

O

Optical activity

 

Properties of Monosaccharides

 

In

1. Iodocompounds

 

An

2. Acetylation or ester formation

 

Open

3. Osazone formation

 

Indoor

4. Interconversion of sugars

 

Opera

5. Oxidation to produce sugar acids

 

 

(i) Aldonic acids

 

 

(ii) Saccharic or aldaric acid

 

 

(iii) Uronic acids

Raids

6. Reduction of sugars to form sugar alcohols

Are

7. Action of acids on carbohydrates

 

Always

8. Action with alkalies

 

 

(a) In dilute alkali

 

 

(b) In conc. alkali

Rare

9. Reducing action of sugars in alkaline solution

 

Mucopolysaccharides (MPS) - Classification

A

 

I. Acidic Sulphate free MPS

 

 

 

1. Hyaluronic Acid

 

 

 

2. Chondroitin

S

 

II. Sulphate Containing Acid MPS

 

Korean

 

1. Keratan Sulphate (Kerato Sulphate)

 

 

 

 

a.       Keratan SO4 I

 

 

 

 

b.      Keratan SO4 II

 

Cheats

 

2. Chondroitin Sulphates

 

 

 

 

a. Chondroitin SO4 A

 

 

 

 

b. Chondroitin SO4 B

 

 

 

 

c. Chondroitin SO4 C

 

 

 

 

d. Chondroitin SO4 D

 

Have

 

3. Heparin

 

Hacked

 

4. Heparitin Sulphate

N

 

III. Neutral MPS

 

 

 

a.       Blood group substances

 

 

 

b.      Nitrogenous neutral MPS

 

Naturally occurring thrombin inhibitors in plasma :

A

Antithrombin III

Monkey

2-Macroglobulin

Has

Heparin cofactor II

Attacked

1-Antitrypsin

 

Functions of Proteoglycans

 

 

1.      As a constituent of extracellular matrix or ground substance

 

2.      Acts as polyanions

 

3.      Acts as a barrier in tissue

 

4.      Acts as lubricant in joints

 

5.      Role in release of hormone

 

6.      Role in cell migration in embryonic tissues

 

7.      Role in glomerular filtration

 

8.      Role as anticoagulant in vitro and in vivo:

 

9.      Role as a coenzyme

 

10.  As a receptor of cell

 

11.  Role in compressibility of cartilages

 

12.  Role in sclera of eye

 

13.  Role in corneal transparency


 

 

Proteins

 

Made up of :-

1.      Carbon

2.      Hydrogen

3.      Oxygen

4.      Nitrogen

 

Functions

1.      Forms

i.                    Hormones

ii.                  Enzymes

iii.                Antibodies

2.      Fluid and electrolyte regulation

3.      pH buffer

4.      Transport of nutrients

 

Amino acids

 

 

A. Neutral amino acids

 

 

 (a) Aliphatic Amino Acids

 

 

 

1. Glycine (Gly) or α-amino acetic acid.

 

 

 

2. Alanine (Ala) or α-amino propionic acid.

 

 

 

3. Valine (Val) or α-amino-isovaleric acid.

 

 

 

4. Leucine (Leu) or α-amino-isocaproic acid.

 

 

 

5. Isoleucine (Ile) or α-amino- β-methyl valeric acid.

 

 

 

6. Serine (Ser) or α-amino-β-hydroxy propionic acid.

 

 

 

7. Threonine (Thr) or α-amino-β-hydroxybutyric acid.

 

 

(b) Aromatic Amino Acids

 

 

 

8. Phenylalanine (Phe) or α-amino-β-phenyl propionic acid.

 

 

 

9. Tyrosine (Tyr) or parahydroxy phenylalanine

 

 

 (c) Heterocyclic Amino Acids

 

 

 

10. Tryptophan (Trp) or α-amino-β-3-indole propionic acid.

 

 

 

11. Histidine (His) or α-amino-β-imidazole propionic acid

 

 

 (d) Imino Acids

 

 

 

12. Proline (Pro) or Pyrrolidone-2-carboxylic acid.

 

 

 

13. Hydroxyproline (Hyp) or 4 hydroxy pyrrolidone-2 carboxylic acid.

 

 

 (e) ‘S’ containing amino acids

 

 

 

14. Cysteine (Cys) or α-amino-β-mercaptopropionic acid.

 

 

 

15. Methionine (Met) or α-amino-¡-methylthio-h-butyric acid

 

B. Acidic amino acids

 

 

 

16. Aspartic acid (Asp) or α-amino succinic acid.

 

 

 

17. Glutamic Acid (Glu) or α-aminoglutaric acid.

 

C. Basic amino acids

 

 

 

18. Arginine (Arg) or α-amino-d-guanidino-n-valeric acid.

 

 

 

19. Lysine (Lys) or α- å-diamino caproic acid.

 

 

 

20. Hydroxylysine (Hyl) or α- å-diamino-d-hydroxy-nvaleric acid.

 

New Amino Acids

 

A. Selenocysteine - 21st amino acids

 

B. Pyrrolysine - 22nd amino acid

 

 

Non-standard Amino Acids

 

A.     Non-protein amino acid structure s

 

 

β-alanine

 

 

Taurine

 

 

Ornithine and citrulline

 

 

Thyroxine (T4) and Tri-iodo Thyronine (T3)

 

 

¡-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

 

 

β-amino isobutyric acid

 

 

d-aminolaevulinic acid (-ALA)

 

 

S-adenosyl methionine (SAM)

 

 

3, 4-dihydroxy phenyl alanine (DOPA)

 

B.     D-amino acids

 

 

D-glutamic acid and D-Alanine

 

 

D-amino acids

 

Nutritional Classification

 

Express

 (a) Essential amino acids – Not synthesized in body

News

 (b) Non-essential amino acids – Synthesized in body

Service

 (c) Semi-essential amino acids – Synthesized in body in inadequate quantity

 

Properties of amino acids

I

A. Isomerism

 

 

 

 (a) Stereoisomerism

 

 

 

 (b) Optical Isomerism

A

B. Amphoteric Nature and Isoelectric pH

P

C. Physical Properties:

 

 

 

Colourless,

 

 

 

Crystalline

 

 

 

More soluble in water than in polar solvents.

 

 

 

High melting point usually more than 200°C

 

 

 

High dielectric constant

 

 

 

Large dipole moment

D

D. Chemical Properties

 

 

I. Due to Carboxylic (—COOH) Group

 

 

 

1. Formation of esters

 

 

 

2. Reduction to amino alcohol

 

 

 

3. Formation of amines by decarboxylation

 

 

 

4. Formation of amides

 

 

II. Properties Due to Amino (–NH2) Group

 

 

 

1. Salt formation with acids

 

 

 

2. Formation of acyl derivatives

 

 

 

3. Oxidation

 

 

 

4. Reaction with HNO2

 

 

 

5. Reaction with CO2

 

 

 

6. Reaction with formaldehyde

 

 

 

7. Specific colour reactions

 

 

III. Properties of Amino acids Due to Both NH2 and COOH Groups

 

Classification of proteins - On the basis of shape and size

 

Fibrous proteins

 

 

Keratin from hair

 

 

Collagen.

 

Globular protein

 

 

Myoglobin,

 

 

Haemoglobin,

 

 

Ribonuclease

 

Classification of proteins - On the basis of functional properties

 

D

Defence proteins

 

 

 Immunoglobulins involved in defence mechanisms.

C

Contractile proteins:

 

 

Proteins of skeletal muscle involved in muscle contraction and relaxation.

R

Respiratory proteins

 

 

Haemoglobin,

 

 

Myoglobin,

 

 

Cytochromes.

S

Structural proteins:

 

 

 Proteins of skin, cartilage, nail.

E

Enzymes: Proteins acting as enzymes.

H

Hormones: Proteins acting as hormones.

 

Classification of proteins - On the basis of solubility and physical properties

 

 

A. Simple Proteins

 

 

1. Protamines

 

 

 

Salmine

 

 

 

Sardinine

 

 

 

cyprinine of fish sperms and testes.

 

 

2. Histones

 

 

 

Nucleohistones,

 

 

 

chromosomal nucleoproteins

 

 

 

globin of haemoglobin.

 

 

3. Albumins

 

 

 

Plant albumins:

 

 

 

Legumelin in legumes,

 

 

 

Leucosin in cereals.

 

 

 

Animal source:

 

 

 

Ovalbumin in egg,

 

 

 

lactalbumin in milk.

 

 

4. Globulins

 

 

 

Hemopexin

 

 

 

Transferrin

 

 

 

Ceruloplasmin

 

 

 

immunoglobulins.

 

 

 

ovoglobulin in eggs,

 

 

 

lactoglobulin in milk

 

 

 

legumin from legumes.

 

 

5. Gliadins (Prolamines)

 

 

 

Gliadin of wheat

 

 

 

hordein of barley.

 

 

6. Glutelins

 

 

 

Oryzenin of rice

 

 

 

glutelin of wheat.

 

 

7. Scleroproteins or Albuminoids

 

 

 

 (a) Keratins

 

 

 

 (b) Collagen

 

 

 

Gelatin

 

 

 

 (c) Elastins

 

B. Conjugated Proteins

 

 

1. Nucleoproteins

 

 

 

(i) Deoxyribonucleoproteins

 

 

 

(ii) Ribonucleoproteins

 

 

 

Nucleohistone

 

 

 

b. nucleoprotamine.

 

 

2. Mucoproteins or Mucoids

 

 

3. Glycoproteins

 

 

4. Chromoproteins

 

 

 

 (a) Haemoproteins

 

 

 

• Haemoglobin

 

 

 

• Cytochromes

 

 

 

• Catalase

 

 

 

• Peroxidase

 

 

 

(b) Others

 

 

 

• Flavoprotein

 

 

 

• Visual purple

 

 

5. Phosphoproteins

 

 

6. Lipoproteins

 

 

7. Metalloproteins

 

 

 

Ferritin

 

 

 

Carbonic Anhydrase

 

 

 

Ceruloplasmin

 

C. Derived Proteins

 

 

 (a) Primary derived proteins

 

 

1. Proteans

 

 

 

Myosan

 

 

 

Edestan

 

 

 

Fibrin

 

 

2. Metaproteins

 

 

3. Coagulated proteins

 

 

 

cooked meat protein

 

 

 

cooked egg albumin protein

 

 

 

alcohol precipitated protein

 

 

(b) Secondary derived proteins

 

 

1. Proteoses or albumoses

 

 

2. Peptones

 

 

3. Peptides

 

 

 

Dipeptides

 

 

 

Tripeptides

 

 

Biologically Important Peptides

 

G

Glutathione

C

Carnosine

B

Bradykinin

O

Oxytocin and Vasopressin

A

Angiotensins

G

Gastrin, Secretin and Pancreozymin

C

β-Corticotropin (ACTH), and β MSH

A

Antibiotics

B

Brain Peptides

 

Normal values of plasma proteins

 

Total Proteins = 7.0 to 7.5 Gm%

 

By Precipitation

(Gm %)

By Paper Electrophoresis

(% of total proteins)

Albumin

3.7-5.2

50-70

Globulins

1.8-3.6

29.5-54

α1-globulin

0.1-0.4

2.0-6.0

α2-globulin

0.4-0.8

5.0-11.0

β-globulin

0.5-1.2

7.0-16.0

¡-globulin

0.7-1.5

11.0-22.0

Fibrinogen

0.2-0.4

 

A:G ratio = 2.5:1.0 to 1.2:1.0 (Mode : 2:1)

 

 

Electrophoretic Pattern in different diseases

 

Disease

Alb

α1-glo

α2-glo

β-glo

¡-glo

Nephrosis

down

 

up

 

down

Chronic liver disease

 

 

 

 

Up

Infective hepatitis

 

down

down

 

Up

Diabetes mellitus

 

 

up

 

 

Rheumatoid arthritis

 

 

 

up

Up

Systemic lupus erythematosus

 

 

 

up

up

Sarcoidosis

 

 

up

up

up

Lymphatic leukaemia

 

 

 

 

down

Myelogenous and monocytic leukaemia

 

 

 

 

up

Multiple myeloma

Sharp paraprotein band in β to ¡-region (M band-monoclonal)

 

Acute Phase Proteins (or Reactants)

C

C-reactive protein (CRP)

H

Haptoglobin (Hp)

A

α1-Antitrypsin

A

α1-Acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) and

F

Fibrinogen

 

Proteins excreted in urine may be of following types:-

 

Send

Serum albumin

A

Albumoses

Paper

Peptones

Boat

Bence-Jones proteins.

 

Causes of Hypoproteinaemia
 

Kidney disorders

Massive proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome

Intestinal disorders

Idiopathic exudative enteropathy, enteritis, colitis, fistulae, amyloidosis, polyadenomatosis, Whipple's disease, lymph node metastases

Skin conditions

Burns, Exudative dermatosis

Malnutrition

 

 

Fats

 

Classification of  Lipids

S

 

I. Simple Lipids

 

 

 

 (a) Neutral fats (Triacylglycerol, TG)

 

 

 

 (b) Waxes

 

The

 

 

True waxes

 

Casual

 

 

Cholesterol esters

 

Visit

 

 

Vit A and Vit D esters

C

 

II. Compound Lipids

 

Post

 

 (a) Phospholipids

 

Graduate

 

 (b) Glycolipids

 

Students

 

 (c) Sulpholipids

 

At

 

 (d) Aminolipids (Proteolipids)

 

Loss

 

(e) Lipoproteins

D

 

III. Derived Lipids

 

Feed

 

 (a) Fatty acids

 

Me

 

(b) Monoglycerides (Monoacylglycerol) and Diglycerides

 

Apple

 

 (c) Alcohols

M

 

IV. Miscellaneous

 

A

 

 

Aliphatic hydrocarbons

 

Casual

 

 

Carotenoids

 

Solitary

 

 

Squalene

 

Visitor

 

 

Vitamins E and K.

 

TYPES OF FATTY ACIDS

 

Some

(a) Saturated FA

 

 

 

Acetic acid CH3COOH

 

 

 

Propionic acid C2H5COOH

 

 

 

Butyric acid C3H7COOH

 

 

 

Caproic acid C5H11COOH

 

 

 

Palmitic acid C15 H31COOH

 

 

 

Stearic acid C17 H35COOH

 

Uunmanned

 (b) Unsaturated FA

 

 

 

 (1) Mono unsaturated (Monoethenoid) fatty acids

 

 

 

 (2) Polyunsaturated (Polyethenoid) fatty acids

 

 

 

Linoleic acid series (18 : 2; 9, 12)

 

 

 

Linolenic acid series (18 : 3; 9, 12, 15)