Surgery Mnemonics
Dr K Chaudhry

FIRST Author of Jaypee Brothers


 

Contents

 

 

Page

01

General surgery

3

02

Clinical surgery

4

03

Tumours

6

04

Cardiovascular system

8

05

Urinary system

11

06

Gastrointestinal system

13

07

Nervous system

29

08

Breast

30

09

Orthopaedics

33

 

 


 

General surgery


Wounds - Types

I

1. Incised wound

Like

2. Lacerated wound

Consent

3. Contused wound

Separately

4. Sprain

From

5. Fracture

6. Puncture wound

3 Partners

7. Perforating wound

8. Penetrating wound

Burn

Local effects

Paying

1. Pain

Fairly

2. Fluid, electrolyte and protein loss

Heavy

3. Heat loss

Income

4. Infection

Tax

5. Thrombosis

Systemic effects

Heavy

1. Haemolysis

Investment

2. Increased capillary permeability

With

3. Water and electrolyte loss

Companies

4. Cardiac output diminished

Often

5. Oliguria and renal failure

Causes

6. Curling's ulcer

Real

7. Respiratory failure

Concern

8. Catabolism

 

General management

Send

1. Sedation and analgesia

A

2. Airway maintenance

Fast

3. Fluid balance

Bowler

4. Blood

To

5. Tetanus prevention

Attack

6. Antibiotics

A

7. Antacids

New

8. Nutrition

Run

9. Reassurance

Rioter

10. Rehabilitation

Local management

Doctors

1. Debridement

Always

2. Antiseptic

Have

3. Haemografts

An

4. Autografts

Emergency

5. Escharotomy

Duty

6. Deformity prevention

Complications of Middle Ear Disease

Men

1. Mastoiditis - Acute and chronic

Evade

2. Extradural brain abscess

The

3. Thrombosis of lateral sinus and jugular vein

Doctor

4. Deafness

Living

5. Labyrinthitis with vertigo

Second

6. Sternomastoid abscess

Floor

7. Facial palsy



 

Clinical surgery



Examination of Swelling

History

Daily

1. Duration

Many

2. Mode of onset

Shopkeepers

3. Situation

Send

4. Shape

Precious

5. Progress

Packets

6. Pain

Some

7. Secondary changes

Shopkeepers

8. Similar swellings elsewhere

Lose

9. Loss of body weight

Receipts

10. Recurrence

Physical examination

Not

1. Number

Single

2. Situtation

Service

3. Shape

Station

4. Size

Can

5. Colour

Serve

6. Surface

Every

7. Edge

Person

8. Pulsation

In

9. Impulse on coughing

Same

10. Skin over the swelling

Polite

11. Pressure effects

Loving

12. Local temperature

Tone

13. Tenderness

Examination of an Ulcer

History

Decent

1. Duration

Men

2. Mode of onset

Pay

3. Pain

Due

4. Discharge

Price

5. Past history

Physical examination

Indian

A. Inspection

New

1. Number

Persons

2. Position

Specially

3. Size

Sought

4. Shape

For

5. Floor

Every

6. Edge

Day

7. Discharge

Short

8. Surrounding area

Visits

9. Varicose veins

People

B. Palpation

Tried

1. Tenderness

Even

2. Edge

Better

3. Base

Makes

4. Mobility

Like

C. Lymph nodes

Imported

D. Impairment of circulation

Nuts

E. Nerve lesions



 

Tumours


Common Benign Tumours

People's

1. Papilloma

Liking

2. Lipoma

For

3. Fibroma

Kites

4. Keloid

Not

5. Neurofibroma

Always

6. Angiomas    a. Capillary   b. Cavernous

Concealed

7. Chondroma   a. Enchondroma   b. Ecchondroma

Malignant Tumour

Etiology

Common

1. Chemical

People

2. Physical

Visit

3. Viral

Great

4. Genetic

Monuments

5. Miscellaneous (diet)

Spread

Dim

1. Direct extension

Light

2. Lymphatic

Vision

3. Vascular

Thin

4. Transcoelomic

Local effects

Evening

1. Expansive   a. Obstruction   b. Lump

In

2. Infiltrative   a. Pain      b. Fixation

Newzealand

3. Necrosis    a. Bleeding    b. Infection

Metastatic effects

Lady

1. Lymphadenopathy

Dancers

2. Dyspnoea (lung)

Join

3. Jaundice (liver)

Fun

4. Fracture (bone)

Every

5. Epilepsy (brain)

Night

6. Nodules (skin)

Systemic effects

College

1. Constitutional

Cachexia and weight loss

Anaemia

Fever

Can

2. Cutaneous

Acantosis nigricans

Dermatomyositis

Hire

3. Haematological

Polycythaemia

Very

4. Vascular

Thrombophlebitis

Huge

5. Hormonal and metabolic

Cushing's disease (lung) 

ADH secretion (lung)

Hypercalcaemia (lung, breast)

Hypoglycaemia (liver

Grand

6. Gout (lymphomas

Net

7. Neuromuscular

Cerebellar degeneration (lung)

Myasthenia gravis (thymus)

Complications of Radiotherapy

Now

1. Nausea, vomiting, malaise

Some

2. Skin ulceration

Beautiful

3. Bowel stricture, ulceration or perforation

New

4. Nephritis

Girls

5. Gonadal atrophy

Present

6. Pancytopenia

Poetry

7. Pneumonitis and fibrosis

Please

8. Pericarditis

Come

9. Conjunctivitis and cataract

Closer

10. Cerebral oedema

Beauty

11. Bone necrosis

Lovers

12. Leukaemia



 

Cardiovascular System


Cardiac Arrest

Causes

My

1. Myocardial infarction

Heavens!

2. Hypoxia

Did

3. Drugs e.g. adrenaline, anaesthetics

He

4. Hypothermia

Ever

5. Embolism

Have

6. Haemorrhage and shock

Flat?

7. Fright

Everyone

8. Electrocution

Enquired

9. Electrolyte imbalance

As

10. Acid base imbalance

He

11. Hypercapnoea

Vanished

12. Viscerocardiac reflexes

Signs

Union

1. Unconsciousness

People

2. Pulse not palpable

Giving

3. Gasping or apnoea

Posters

4. Pupils dilated

Management

Rupee

1. Raise foot end

Coins

2. Clear airway

Are

3. Artificial respiration

Every

4. External cardiac massage

Day

5. Drugs

A

Adrenaline 1 ampoule i.v.

Curly

Calcium gluconate 10 ml i.v.

Haired

Hydrocortisone 100 mg i.v.

Spy

Sodium bicarbonate 6-10 ml i.v.

In

6. Internal cardiac massage

Demand

7. Defibrillation

Every

Electric defibrillation

Saint

Sodium bicarbonate 100 ml i.v.

Prays

Procainamide 200 mg i.v.

Lord

Lignocaine 50-100 mg i.v.


Shock - Clinical Picture

Please

1. Pallor

Send

2. Skin cold and moist

Red

3. Respiration rapid and shallow

Carpets.

4. Cyanosis

People

5. Pulse weak and rapid

Have

6. Hypotension

Often

7. Oliguria

Played

8. Polydipsia

A

9. Apprehension and restlessness

Demon

10. Diminished senses

Gangrene - Causes

Cops

A. Cardiovascular

An

Arteriosclerosis (senile)

Evening

Endarteritis obliterans (syphilis)

Real

Raynaud's disease

Brothers

Buerger's disease

Can

Cervical rib

Emerge

Ergot poisoning

Enemies

Embolic

Now

B. Nerve Disease

Short

Syringomyelia

Thin

Tabes dorsalis

People

Peripheral neuritis

Like

Leprosy

Him

Hemiplegia

Please

Paraplegia

Trying

C. Traumatic

Tissue injury

Vascular injury

To

D. Thermochemical

He

Heat

Can

Cold

Complete

Corrosives

X-ray

X-ray

Reporting

Radium

Indict

E. Infective 

a. Acute

Bose

Boil

Can

Carbuncle

Complete

Cancrum oris

Project

Postoperative

b. Gas gangrene

Doctor

F. Diabetic

Chronic Peripheral Ischaemia

Central

1. Claudication

Hip pain (bilateral iliac)

Thigh pain (common femoral)

Calf pain (superficial femoral)

Park

2. Pulses diminished or lost

Has

3. Hair absent, nails brittle or opaque

Many

4. Muscle atrophy

Pretty

5. Pallor on elevation

Damsels

6. Dependent rubor

Coming

7. Capillary return slow

With

8. Wound healing slow

Pistols

9. Pain at rest

Under

10. Ulceration and Gangrene

Acute Arterial Occlusion - Effects

1. Pain

2. Pallor

6

3. Pulseless

P's

4. Parasthesia

5. Paralysis

6. Perishing cold



 

Urinary System


Urinary Obstruction - Causes

A. In pelvis

Come

1. Congenital

Tomorrow

2. Tumour

Shop

3. Stone

Closed

4. Clot

B. In ureter

She

1. Stone

Can

2. Clot

Try

3. Tumour

Samples

4. Stricture

Under

5. Ureterocoele

Company

6. Carcinoma

Colon

Rectum

Cervix

Rules

7. Retroperitoneal fibrosis

C. In urethra

Please

1. Prostate

Send

2. Stricture

Female

3. Foreign bodies

Coach

4. Congenital valves

Urolithiasis

Causes

a. Stasis

His

1. Hydronephrosis

Brother

2. Bladder diverticulum

Really

3. Retroprostatic pouch

Living

4. Large residual volume

In

5. Immobilityt

Distress

6. Dehydration

b. Excess of normal constituents

1. Hyperparathyroidism (calcium)

2. Gout (urate)

3. Crohn's disease (oxalate, urate, calcium)

c. Abnormal urine constituents

1. Foreign body

2. Epithelial debris (infection)

Radiological D/D

Call

1. Calcified lymph node

Girl

2. Gall stones

Pulled

3. Phleboliths

The

4. Tuberculosis

Curtain,

5. Calcified adrenal

Confessed

6. Calcified pancreas

Real

7. Radioopaque pills

Crime

8. Calcified fibroids



 

Gastrointestinal System


Ulcers of Tongue

Doctor

1. Dental ulcer

Can

2. Chronic nonspecific ulcer

Inject

3. Infective ulcer

Some

4. Syphilitic ulcer

Tested

5. Tuberculous ulcer

Medicine

6. Malignant ulcer

Tumours of Tongue

Benign

Physicians

1. Papilloma

And

2. Angioma

Lawyers

3. Lymphangioma

Never

4. Neurofibroma

Let

5. Lipoma

Loose

6. Lingual thyroid

Malignant

Carcinoma

Dysphagia - Causes

Boys

A. Bucco-pharyngeal

I

1. Inflammations

Undertake

2. Ulceration

Low

3. Labioglossolaryngeal paralysis

Budget

4. Bulbar paralysis

Schemes

5. Spasm

For

6. Foreign bodies

Routine

7. Retropharyngeal abscess

Treatment

8. Tumours

Like

B Laryngeal

A

1. Acute laryngitis

Complaint

2. Chronic laryngitis

To

3. Tuberculosis

Station

4. Syphilis

Master

5. Malignancy

Only

C. Oesophageal

Can

1. Congenital malformations

International

2. Inflammation - acute or chronic

Funds

3. Foreign body

Department

4. Diverticula

Offer

5. Oesophagectasia

Some

6. Simple stricture

Money?

7. Malignant stricture

New

D. Neck

G

1. Goitre

A

2. Aneurysm

T

3. Tumours

E

4. Enlarged lymph nodes

Teacher

E. Thorax

Middle

1. Mediastinal tumours

Men

2. Medistinal lymph nodes

Assist

3. Aneurysms

Carcinoma of Stomach

Etiology

Poor

1. Peptic ulcer

Men

2. Macrocytic anaemia

Generally

3. Gastric polyposis

Cursed

4. Chronic gastritis

Clinical features

Deaf

1. Dyspepsia

And

2. Anorexia

Dumb

3. Discomfort after food

First

4. Flatulence

Lived

5. Loss of weight

Desperately

6. Dyspnoea and palpitation (anaemia)

Now

7. Nausea

People 

8. Pain in stomach and back - relieved by vomiting

Delivering

9. Dysphagia, heartburn

Generous

10. Gastric Distention

Aid

11. Anaemia and cachexia

Diagnosis

Boring

1. Barium radiography

Gossip

2. Gastroscopy

From

3. Fractional test meal

Short

4. Stool examination for occult blood

Wave

5. Weight chart

Treatment

Girls 

1. Gastroenterostomy

Generally

2. Gastrostomy

Join

3. Jejunostomy

Inside

4. Insertion of  radon seeds or short lengths of radioactive gold wire

Postgastrectomy syndrome

A. Ulceration

1. Jejunal ulcer

2. Gastric ulcer

3. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

B. Altered function

a. Postcibal symptoms

1. Early postcibal syndrome (Dumpimg syndrome)

2. Late postcibal syndrome (hypoglycaemic syndrome)

3. Bile vomiting

b. Nutritional disturbances

Why

1. Weight loss and sreatorrhoea

Is

2. Iron deficiency anaemia

My

3. Megaloblastic anaemia

Vehicle

4. Vitamin B Deficiency

Stopped?

5. Severe malnutrition

Chronic Peptic Ulcer

Etiology

Please

1. Personality predisposition

Assist

2. Acid factor

The

3. Traumatic factor

Very

4. Vascular factor

Tall

5. Toxic factor

New

6. Neurogenic factor

Visiting

7. Vitamin deficiency factor

Doctor

8. Diet factor

Clinical features

Pushing

1. Pain

Very

2. Vomiting

Heavily

3. Haematemesis

My

4. Melaena

Loaded

5. Loss of weight

Truck

6. Tenderness

Differential diagnosis

Carrying

1. Cholecystitis

A

2. Appendicitis

Rocking

3. Renal colic

Horse

4. Hiatus hernia

On

5. Oesophagitis

Car

6. Chronic pancreatitis

And

7. Angina pectoris

Coming

8. Carcinoma of stomach, colon or liver

Immediately

9. Idiopathic dyspepsia

Complications

Her

1. Haemorrage

Parents

2. Perforation

Paid

3. Perigastric inflammation

Some

4. Stenosis

Pyloric stenosis

Hour-glass stomach

Amount

5. Anastomotic ulcer

Treatment

Very

1. Vagotomy

Great

2. Gastrojejunostomy

Person

3. Partial gastrectomy

Appendicitis

Etiology

Pretty

1. Poor blood supply

Big

2. Bacteria within the lumen and lymphoid follicles

Guns

3. Greater length, direction and position

Seen

4. Short mesentery

Busy

5. Blocked opening into caecum

In

6. Intestinal infection and foreign bodies

Indian

7. Inflammation of caecum and colon

Equity

8. External trauma

Clinical types

College

1. Catarrhal appendicitis

Guys

2. Gangrenous appendicitis

Are

3. Appendicular abscess

Only

4. Obstructive appendicitis

Roaming

5. Recurrent appendicitis

At

6. Appendicular gastralgia

College

7. Chronic appendicitis

Clinical Features (of Catarrhal type)

Police

1. Pain in right iliac fossa

Force

2. Fever

Not

3. Nausea and vomiting

Caring

4. Constipation - diarrhoea in children

To

5. Tongue furred with foul breath

Attend

6. Abdominal wall rigid, right thigh flexed

The

7. Tenderness at McBurney's point - Rebound tenderness

Lone

8. Lump

Crying

9. Cutaneous hyperaesthesia

Lady

10. Leucocyte count over 12,000/cu.mm.

Differential Diagnosis

Many

1. Mesenteric adenitis

People

2. Pneumonia (in children)

Even

3. Enteritis

Admire

4. Acute pyelitis

Prime

5. Perforation of duodenum or stomach

Minister

6. Mucous colitis

Serving

7. Salpingitis and oophoritis

Social

8. Spinal tuberculosis

Service

9. Suppuration of deep iliac nodes

Cause

10. Carcinoma of caecum

Peritonitis

Etiology

Great

1. Gastrointestinal

Please

a. Peptic ulcer perforation

Teach

b. Traumatic rupture

First

c. Foreign body impaction

Step

d. Strangulation and volvulus

Again

e. Appendicitis

People

2. Puerperal peritonitis

Preach

3. Perforating wounds and operations

Good

4. Gonococcal salpingitis

To

5. Tuberculosis

Mankind

6. Mechanical or chemical

Extravasation of bile 

Intraperitoneal rupture of gall bladder

Bleeding from liver, spleen, ectopic pregnancy

Clinical Picture - Localised peritonitis

Fallopian

1. Fever

Tube

2. Tachycardia

Pregnancy

3. Pain

Very

4. Vomiting

Rare

5. Rigidity of abdominal wall

Clinical Picture - Diffuse peritonitis

Early stage :

Patients

1. Pain spreading all over abdomen

Very

2. Vomiting bile-stained and effortless

Pained

3. Patient supine with knees flexed

To

4. Temperature raised - subnormal in fulminant cases

Pay

5. Pulse rising

The

6. Tongue moist

Fee

7. Face flushed

Are

8. Abdominal wall without respiratory movements

Demonstrating

9. Diffuse rigidity of abdomen

Now

10. No peristaltic sounds

Intermediate stage (3rd day) : 

1. Abdomen acutely tender

2. Pulse rate falls in recovering cases

3. Rigidity gives place distention in bad cases

Later stage :

General

1. Gross distention

Public

2. Pulse rapid and thready

Entry

3. Eyes sunken but bright

Not

4. Nose pinched

Too

5. Tongue dry and shrivelled

Far

6. Forehead and hands cold and clammy

From

7. Facies drawn and anxious (Hippocratic facies)

School

8. Semiconsciousness in final stages

Treatment

Riots

1. Rest to alimentary canal

Ryle's tube aspiration

Nothing orally except 30 ml water every hour

Flatus tube - No enema

Soon

2. Sedation - Morphine 10-15 mg i.m. every 4-hours as necessary 

Initiated

3. Intravenous fluids

At

4. Antibiotics

The

5. Treatment of cause

Poll

6. Peritoneal toilet (sucking)

Paralytic Ileus - Causes

Patient

1. Postoperative

Practically

2. Peritonitis

Remained

3. Retroperitoneal haemorrhage - Fractured vertebrae

Under

4. Ureteric colic

Him

5. Hypokalaemia

Until

6. Uraemia

Doctor

7. Diabetic coma

Declared

8. Drugs - Probanthine

Him

9. Hypothyroidism

Safe

10. Spinal cord injury

Intestinal Obstruction

Clinical types

All

1. Acute intestinal obstruction

Injured

2. Intestinal strangulation

Patients

3. Paralytic ileus

Invariably

4. Intussusception

Visit

5. Volvulus

General

6. Gall stone ileus

Medical

7. Mesenteric thrombosis and embolism

Clinics

8. Chronic intestinal obstruction

Causes

a. Intraluminar

May

1. Meconium

I

2. Intussception

Get

3. Gall stones

In?

4. Impaction

Four

Faecolith

Wealthy

Worms

Boys

Barium

Have

Hair

Failed

Food

b. Bowel wall

Copper

1. Congenital

An

Atresia or stenosis

Italian

Imperforate anus

Diplomatic

Duplications

Mission

Meckel's diverticulum

T

2. Traumatic

Haematoma

Stricture

In

3. Inflammatory

Crohn's disease

Diverticulitis

Newly

4. Neoplastic

Married?

5. Miscellaneous

Potassium induced stricture

Radiation stricture

Endometriosis

c. Extraluminal

A

Adhesions or bands

House

Hernia

At

Annular pancreas

A

Anomalous vessels

Height

Haematoma

Never

Neoplasms

Visited

Volvulus

Treatment

Lady

1. Lysis of adhesions

Robber

2. Reduction or resection of intussception

Reached

3. Reduction of hernia

Every

4. Enterotomy

Remote

5. Resection

Building

6. Bypass

Under

7. Untwisting of volvulus

Dark

8. Decompression with

Ileostomy

Caecostomy

Colostomy

Acute Cholecystitis

Clinical picture

People

1. Pain in right hypochondrium

Now

2. Nausea and vomiting

May

3. Malaise

Find

4. Fever

Taxation

5. Tachycardia

Really

6. Rigidity of abdominal wall

Meaningful

7. Murphy's sign positive

Differential diagnosis

Pale

1. Peptic ulcer

Patients

2. Pancreatitis

May

3. Myocardial infarction

Have

4. Hepatitis

A

5. Appendicitis

Post

6. Pneumonia

Partum

7. Pleurisy

Haemorrhyage

8. Herpes zoster

Treatment

All

1. Antibiotics

In

2. I.V. fluids

Company

3. Cholecystectomy

Cholelithiasis

Types of stones

Milk

1. Mixed stones

Can

2. Cholesterol stones

Produce

3. Pigment stones

Curd

4. Calcium carbonate stomes

Clinical picture

Doctor

1. Dyspepsia

Found

2. Flatulence

A

3. Aversion to fatty food

Nurse

4. Nausea

Even

5. Epigastric pain

Standing

6. Subcostal pain referred to shoulder

Still

7. Subcostal tenderness

Sites of Impaction

Good

1. Gall bladder

Cases

2. Cystic duct

Coming

3. Common bile duct

Predisposing factors

Late

1. Lithogenic bile

Sittings

2. Stasis

In

3. Infection

Heart

4. Haemolysis

Disease

5. Diabetes mellitus

Have

6. Hyperlipidaemia

Often

7. Oral contraceptives

Increased

8. Intestinal parasites

Cardiac

9. Crohn's disease

Pain

10. Phaeochromocytoma

Chronic cholecystitis

Differential diagnosis

New

1. Nervous dyspepsia

Patients

2. Peptic ulcer

Generally

3. Gastritis

Can

4. Chronic pancreatitis

Call

5. Carcinoma of stomach

Him

6. Hepatic flexure disease

Late

7. Liver abscess

General complications

A

1. Acute cholecystitis

Car

2. Common bile duct stone

Can

3. Cholecystenteric fistula

Pull

4. Pancreatitis

Car

5. Carcinoma of gall bladder

Complications in gall bladder

Some

1. Silent stones

Dying

2. Dyspepsia

Cases

3. Colic

May

4. Mucocoele

Come

5. Acute cholecystitis

Casually

6. Chronic cholecystitis

Complications in bile duct

Come

1. Colic

On

2. Obstructive jaundice

Anne

3. Acute pancreatitis

Complications in intestine

Intestinal obstruction

Acute Pancreatitis

Etiology

Even

1. Extrahepatic biliary disease

At

2. Alcoholism

The

3. Trauma

Posh

4. Postoperative

Gastrectomy

Biliary surgery

Afferent loop obstruction

Hospitals

5. Hyperparathyroidism

Departments

6. Drugs

Thiazides

Frusemide

Corticosteroids

Have

7. Hypothermia

Hired

8. Hypercholestraemia

Various

9. Viral

Mumps

Coxsackie

Machines

10. Miscellaneous

Polyarteritis nodosa

Malignant hypertension

Clinical features

1. Epigastric pain radiating to back

2. Vomiting

3. Distention

4. Jaundice

5. Glycosuria

6. Carpopedal spasm

7. Ecchymosis in flanks and around unbilicus

Differential diagnosis

Poor

1. Penetrating duodenal ulcer

Patients

2. Perforated duodenal ulcer

Are

3. Acute cholecystitis

In

4. Ischaemic bowel

Mesenteric embolus

Strangulation

Maximum

5. Myocardial infarction

Distress

6. Dissecting aneurysm

Splenectomy

Indications

Resident

1. Ruptured spleen

Reading

2. Radical gastrectomy

Bed

3. Blood disorders

Idiopathic thrombocytopenia

Hereditory spherocytosis 

Head

4. Hodgkin's disease

Ticket

5. Tumours and cysts

Complications

He

1. Haemorrhage

Sees

2. Stomach dilatation

Lady

3. Lung collapse (left lower lobe)

Patients

4. Pancreatitis

Sitting at

5. Subphrenic abscess

Some

6. Splenic vein thrombosis

Safe

7. Septicaemia

Distance

8. Deep vein thrombosis

Hernia

Congenital causes

First

1. Funicular process nonobliteration

Time

2. Testes descended late

A

3. Abdominal muscles and parieties weak

Pre

4. Patency of rings usually more

Marital

5. Mesentery or omentum abnormally long

Evacuation

6. Extreme phimosis

Causes

7. Congenital apertures in linea alba or linea semilunaris

Ultra

8. Umbilicus imperfectly developed

Distress

9. Diaphragm defective, occasionally

Acquired causes

Please

1. Postoperative

Decorate

2. Direct trauma

Central

3. Chronic strain

Weight lifting occupations

Chronic cough

Enlarged prostate or stricture

Constipation

Registration

4. Relaxation of abdominal parieties

Pregnancy, imperfect involution

Old age

Office

5. Obesity

Contents

I

1. Intestines (enterocoele)

Only

2. Omentum (epicocoele)

Can

3. Caecum

Advise

4. Appendix

U

5. Urinary bladder

Extraperitoneal

Paraperitoneal

Intraperitoneal

On

6. Ovary and fallopian tube

Marriage

7. Meckel's diverticulam

 

Types

I

1. Inguinal hernia

One

a. Oblique inguinal hernia

A

Acquired

Cunning

Congenital

Inspector

Infantile or cystic

Day

b. Direct inguinal hernia

Invite

c. Interstitial hernia

Intraparietal

Interparietal

Extraparietal

Her

d. Hernia-en-Glissade

Firmly

2. Femoral hernia

Under

3. Umbilical hernia

a. Infantile

b. Adult

Valued

4. Ventral hernia

a. Epigastric hernia

b. Divarication of recti

Lady

5. Lumber hernia

Dancing

6. Diaphragmatic hernia

a. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia

b. Traumatic diaphragmatic hernia

c Hiatus hernia

Over

7. Obturator hernia

Rope

8. Rare types

Please

a. Pudic hernia

Pay

b. Pudendal hernia

Visit

c. Vaginal hernia

Soon

d. Sciatic hernia

 

Complications

1. Incarcerated hernia

2. Strangulated hernia

3. External strangulated hernia



 

Nervous System


Regional Anaesthesia - Types

Short

1. Surface anaesthesia

Ladies

2. Local infiltration

Not

3. Nerve block

Really

4. Refrigeration anaesthesia

Energetic

5. Extradural anaesthesia



 

Breast


Mastitis - Types

I

1. Infantile mastitis

Paid

2. Puberty mastitis

My

3. Mumps Mastitis

Every

4. Engorgment mastitis

Buck

5. Bacterial mastitis

Breast Carcinoma - Spread

A. Direct extension

Skin

Underlying fascia, muscles and chest wall

B  Lymphatic extenstion

An

1. Axillary nodes

Can

Central

Police

Pectoral

Say

Subcapsular

Something?

Subclavicular or apical

Agent

2. Anterior mediastinal nodes

Seen

3. Supraclavicular nodes

On

4. Opposite breast

Aeroplane

5. Abdominal wall, liver and peritoneal cavity

C. Vascular

Very

1. Vertebrae

Rough

2. Ribs

Surface

3. Skull

Breast Carcinoma - Symptoms and Signs

Little

1. Localised mass, stony hard with irregular surface

A

2. Adhesions to skin

While

3. Whole breast may be infiltrated or shrunken

Before

4. Breast adherent to pectoral fascia and muscle

Ladies

5. Lymph nodes enlarged and stony hard - later matted and ulcerated

Often

6. Opposite breast may show secondary deposit 

Practiced

7. Paralysis of arm with severe pain in extremities

Low

8. Later, induration, discoloration and ulceration

Monthly

9. Metastatic symptoms

Just

Jaundice

Drink

Dyspnoes and pleural effusion

A

Ascites

Bit

Bone pain

Costs

10. Cachexia and emaciation

Breast Carcinoma - Clinical Varieties

Even

1. Extraduct cancer

Send

Scirrhous

A

Acute encephaloid

Line

Lactational

Atlas

Adenocarcinoma

I

2. Intraduct cancer

May

3. Metaplastic cancer

Manage

4. Male breast cancer

Breast Carcinoma - Treatment

Rogues

1. Radical mastectomy

Live

2. Local mastectomy

Every

3. Endocrine operations

Bilateral oophorectomy

Adrenalectomy

Hypophysectomy

Room

4. Radiotherapy

High voltage therapy

Radium therapy

Isotope therapy

Here

5. Hormone therapy

Testosterone

D/D Breast Discharge

Big

1. Blood stained

Indian

Intraductal papilloma or carcinoma

Defence

Duct ectasia

Force

Fibroadenosis with cysts

Shops

2. Serous

Pregnancy

Buy

3. Brown-green

Fibroadenosis

Many

4. Milky

Following lactation

Galactocoele

Products

5. Purulent

Abscess



 

Orthopaedics


Fractures

Types

Some

1. Simple

Cunning

2. Compound

College

3. Comminuted

Girl

4. Greenstick

Paid

5. Pathological

Short

6. Stress

Clinical features

Please

1. Pain and tenderness

Send

2. Swelling

Doctor

3. Deformity

A

4. Abnormal mobility

Call

5. Crepitus

Causes of nonunion

I

1. Improper immobilisation

Injected

2. Infection

A

3. Avascularity

Safe

4. Soft tissue interposition

Drug, 

5. Distraction

Man

6. Malnutrition and severe anaemia

General complications

Surely

1. Shock

A

2. Aseptic traumatic fever

Harm

3. Hypostatic pneumonia

Ful

4. Fat embolism 

Drug

5. Delirium tremens (in alcoholics)

Local complications - Immediate

1. Nerve injury

2. Vascular injury

3. Muscle and tendon injuries

4. Visceral injury

5. Joint injury

6. Infection

Local complications - delayed

Dog

1. Delayed union or nonunion

Makes

2. Malunion

A

3. Avascular necrosis

Very

4. Volkmann's ischaemic contracture

Mighty

5. Myositis ossificans

Jump

6. Joint stiffness due to :-

Riot

a. Reactional oedema and adhesions

Is

b. Intra- and periarticular adhesions

Most

c. Myositis ossificans 

Ominous

d. Osteoarthritis

Sight

e. Sudeck's osteodystrophy

Joint Injuries - Types

Definitely

1. Dislocations

Some

2. Subluxations

School

3. Sprains

Function

4. Fracture dislocations

Bone Tumours - Classification

One

1. Osteogenic tumours

Beauty

a. Benign osteoblastoma

Often

b. Osteosarcoma

Pays

c. Parosteal sarcoma

Can

2. Chondrogenic tumours

a. Chondroma

b. Chondrosarcoma

Consume

3. Collagenic tumours

Osteoclastoma

Milk

4. Myelogenic tumours

a. Ewing's tumour

b. Reticulum cell sarcoma 

c. Multiple myeloma

Pott's Disease - Clinical features

Patient

1. Pain and tenderness

Reads -

2. Rigidity

Doctor

3. Deformity

Can

4. Cold abscess

Not !

5. Nervous phenomena

Paraplegia

Root pains

Low Backache - Causes

The

1. Traumatic

Sprain

Disc prolapse

Fracture

Indian

2. Inflammatory

Rheumatoid arthritis

Ankylosing spondylitis

Doctor

3. Degenerative

Osteoarthritis

Disc prolapse

Osteoporosis

Now

4. Neoplastic

Primary tumours

Metastases

In

5. Infectious

Tuberculosis

Osteomyelitis

Foeign

6. Functional

Postural

Pregnancy

Leg shortening

Service

7. Structural

Spondylosis

Spondylisthesis

Sacralisation


 


 

Obstetrics & Gynaecology

A.Gynaecology

Causes of Pruritus Vulvae

Very

1. Vaginal discharge

Too

a. Trichomoniasis

Many

b. Moniliasis

Nurses

c. Nonspecific vaginitis and cervicitis

Talented

2. Toxaemic states

Joining

a. Jaundice

University

b. Uraemia

Hostel

c. Hodgkin's disease

Doctors

3. Deficiency diseases

I

a. Iron deficiency anaemia

Purchased

b. Pernicious anaemia

A

c. Achlorhydria

Horse

d. Hypovitaminosis A & B

Doing

4. Diabetes mellitus

Surgery

5. Skin conditions

To

a. Tinea

See

b. Scabes

Picture,

c. Pediculosis

They

d. Threadworms

Have

e. Herpes

Come

f. Contact dermatitis

Definitely

g. Dermatitis medicamentosa

Late;

h. Localised neurodermatitis

So

i. Seborrhoeic dermatitis

Losing

j. Lichen planus

Place

k. Psoriasis

In

l. Intertrigo

Consequence

m. Chronic epithelial dystrophy

Can

6. Carcinoma of vulva

Produce

7. Psychogenic

Infection

8. Idiopathic

Inflammations of Vulva

A. Primary inflammations of vulva

Please

1. Pyogenic infections of hair follicles

a. Folliculitis

b. Furunculosis

Invite

2. Infected sebacious cysts

The

3. Traumatic infections

Any

a. Accidental

Casualty

b. Coital

Officer

c. Obstetric

Operates

d. Operative

Very

4. Venereal infections of vulva

Eminent

5. Eryseplas

Vascular

6. Vulvo-vaginitis in children

Urinary Symptoms

Please

1.        

2.       Pain on micturition

 

Can

Cystitis

Girls

Gonoccal urethritis

Enter?

E. coli urethritis

Repair

 

2. Retention of urine

 

Ruined

Retroverted gravid uterus

My

Myomata incarcerated in pelvis

Huge

Haematocolpos

Plaster

Pelvic haematocele

Of

Ovarian cyst impacted in pelvis

Paris

Postoperative

Duly

 

3. Difficulty in micturition

 

 

 

 

Cystocele

 

 

 

Complete procedentia

The

 

4. True incontinence

 

 

 

 

Urinary fistula

Faculty

 

5. False (stress) incontinence

 

 

 

 

Prolapse

Fan

 

6. Frequency of micturition

 

 

Even

 

Early pregnancy

 

The

 

Term pregnancy

 

Union

 

Urinary infections

 

People

 

Prolapse

 

Pay

 

Pelvic tumours

Types of Vaginitis

See

 

Specific vaginitis

 

 

Go

Gonococcal and other venereal diseases

 

To

Trichomoniasis

 

Mummy

Moniliasis

 

New

 

Nonspecific vaginitis

 

 

Sleep

Streptococci

 

Saves

Staphylococci

 

Energy

E. coli

 

Officer

 

Oestrogen deficiency vaginitis

 

 

 

Very

 

Vulvovaginitis in children

 

 

Simple

 

Senile vaginitis

 

Soon

 

Secondary vaginitis

 

 

 

Face

 

Foreign body

 

 

 

 

 

Vaginal pessary

 

 

 

 

Contraceptive

 

 

 

 

Tampon

 

Is

 

Infective conditions of the cervix

 

 

 

 

 

Endocervicitis

 

 

 

 

Childbirth injuries

 

Under

 

Urinary and rectal fistulae

 

 

My

 

Malignancy of genital tract

 

 

Veil

 

Vaginitis medicamentosa

 

Vaginal Discharge

 

Physiological

 

 

 

Only

 

Ovulation

 

 

Sick

 

Sexual stimulation

 

 

People

 

Premenstrual congestion

 

 

Please

 

Pregnancy

 

 

 

Pathological

 

 

 

Not

 

 

Non-irritating non-odorous white discharge

Police

 

 

Puberty

People

 

 

Pregnancy

Can

 

 

Cervical polyp

Even

 

 

Endocervical infection (mild)

Challan

 

 

Cervical lacerations

Vehicles

 

 

Vaginal infection

In

 

 

Irritating discharge

 

 

 

Trichomonas vaginalis

 

 

 

Candida albicans

Your

 

 

Yellow discharge

Boss

 

 

Bacterial infections of vagina

Is

 

 

Infective cervical polyp or erosion

A

 

 

Acute gonorrhea

Sound

 

 

Septic abortion

Paid

 

 

Puerperal sepsis

Person

 

 

Pyometra

Office

 

 

Offensive discharge

Commonly

 

 

Carcinoma of cervix

Some

 

 

Septic myomatous polyp

Senior

 

 

Septic abortion

Specialist

 

 

Sarcoma of uterus

Comes

 

 

Carcinoma of vagina

For

 

 

Foreign bodies

Treatment

 

 

Trichomonas infection

But

 

 

Blood stained discharge

Obstruction

 

 

Oestrogen deficiency (Senile vaginitis)

Can

 

 

Carcinoma of uterus

Cause

 

 

Cervical polyp

Intense

 

 

Infected submucous fibroid polyp

Ureteric

 

 

Ulcerative lesions

Pain

 

 

Placental polyp

Way

 

 

Watery discharge

Uncle

 

 

Urinary fistula

Has

 

 

Hydrops tubae profluens

Come

 

 

Carcinoma of fallopian tube

Again

 

 

Amniotic fluid leakage

Far

 

 

Faecal discharge

 

 

 

Rectovaginal fistula

Menstrual Abnormalities

Many

 

Menorrhagia

 

 

Fibroid

 

Polyp

 

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Patients

 

Polymenorrhoea (epimenorrhoea)

 

 

Ovarian congestion

 

Ovarian dysfunction

May

 

Metrorrhagia

 

 

 

 

Polyp

 

 

 

Carcinoma of uterus

Create

 

Continuous bleeding

 

 

An

 

Abortion

 

Enema

 

Ectopic pregnancy

 

Cures

 

Carcinoma of cervix or endometrium

 

Many

 

Metropathia haemorrhagica

 

Patients

 

Polyp

Petty

 

Pregnancy haemorrhages

 

 

Sauce

 

Suppressed periods during first few months

 

And

 

Abortion

 

Eggs

 

Ectopic pregnancy

 

Have

 

Hydatidiform mole

 

Arrived

 

Antepartum haemorrhage

Problems

 

Postmenopausal haemorrhage

 

4 Constables

 

 

Carcinoma of cervix

 

 

Carcinoma of body

 

 

Carcinoma of vagina

 

 

Carcinoma of ovaries

Under

 

 

Urethral Caruncle

Some

 

 

Senile vaginitis

Pretext

 

 

Pressure ulcers (from retained ring pessaries)

Punished

 

 

Polyp

Every

 

 

Erosions

Man

 

 

Myoma

Standing

 

 

Sarcoma of uterus

On

 

 

Ovarian tumours

Opera

 

 

Oestrogen administration

D/D Genital Sore

Some

Syphilis

 

Primary sore

Secondary lesions

Gumma

Care

Chancroid

 

Less

Lymphogranuloma venereum

 

 

 

Primary lesion

 

 

Late ulceration

Guys

Granuloma venereum

 

Can

Carcinoma

 

 

 

Of vulva

 

 

Of cervix

Take

Trauma

 

 

 

Physical

 

 

Chemical

A

Acute vulval ulcer (Behcetís syndrome)

 

Second

Scabes

 

Hand

Herpes simplex

 

Heavy

Herpes zoster

 

Tyre

Tuberculosis

 

Causes of Dyspareunia

 

In the male

Can

 

Congenital abnormality of the penis

I

 

 

Impotence

 

 

Peep

 

 

Premature ejaculation

 

 

In?

 

 

Ignorance in coital technique

 

 

In the female

 

 

 

Painful lesions

Very

 

 

 

Vulvitis

 

Under

 

 

 

Urethral caruncle

 

Built

 

 

 

Bartholinís cyst or abcess

 

Thin

 

 

 

Tender operative scars

 

Adult

 

 

 

Anal fissure

 

 

 

 

Obstructive lesions at introitus

Ravindra

 

 

 

Rigid or imperforate hymen

Nath

 

 

 

Narrow ineroitus

 

 

 

 

 

Obstetrical injury or scarring

 

 

 

 

 

Painful episiotomy scar

 

 

 

 

 

Tightly repaired perineal tear

Tagore

 

 

 

Traumatic stenosis

 

 

 

 

 

Congenital hypoplasia

 

 

 

 

 

Kraurosis

 

 

 

 

 

Lichen sclerosis

Seldom

 

 

 

Scar due to chemical burn

 

 

 

 

 

Potassium permanganate

 

 

 

 

 

Lysol

Felt

 

 

 

Functional spasm (vaginismus)

Lonely

 

 

 

Large, tender Bartholinís cyst

 

 

 

Obstructive lesions above the vagina

 

C

 

 

Congenital stenosis of vagina

 

 

A

 

 

Acquired stenosis

 

 

 

 

 

 

Surgical operations

 

 

 

 

 

Chemical burns

 

T

 

 

Tumours of vagina

 

 

 

 

Uterine conditions

 

 

Cold

 

 

 

Cervicitis

 

Creams

 

 

 

Chronic parametritis

 

Rarely

 

 

 

Retroverted uterus

 

Cold

 

 

 

Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease

 

 

 

Lesions of uterine appendages

 

 

 

Please

 

 

Prolapsed ovaries with retroversion

 

Send

 

 

Salpingo-oophoritis

 

 

Eggs

 

 

Endometriosis

 

 

 

 

Extragenital lesions

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon

Methods of Contraception

 

A.      General

 

 

Total abstinence

 

 

 

Abstinence during fertile phase

 

 

B.      Female

 

 

Sub

 

Spermicidal substances

 

Divisional

 

Douching

 

Officers

 

Occlusive diaphragms

 

Are

 

Altering cervical mucus

 

In

 

Intrauterine contraceptive devices

 

Superior

 

Suppression of ovulation

 

Service

 

Surgical sterilization

 

 

C.      Male

 

Can

 

 

Coitus interruptus

Carry

 

 

Condom

Small

 

 

Suppression of spermatogenesis

Vessel

 

 

Vasectomy

Classification of Amenorrhoea

 

 

Physiological

 

 

 

Papa

 

Prebubertal

 

 

 

Presented

 

 

Pregnancy

 

 

 

Lovely

 

 

Lactation

 

 

 

Pen

 

 

Postmenopausal

 

 

 

 

 

Primary pathological

 

 

 

3 Cars

 

 

Congenital obstructive defects

 

 

 

 

 

 

Noncanalisation of cervix

 

 

 

 

 

 

Noncanalisation of vagina

 

 

 

 

 

 

Imperforate hymen

 

 

 

 

 

Congenital absence of hypoplasia of uterus

 

 

 

 

 

Congenital aplasia of ovaries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turnerís syndrome

 

 

 

In

 

 

Intersexualism

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pseudohermaphroditism

 

 

 

His

 

 

Hypopituitary dwarfism

 

 

 

House

 

 

Hypothyroid cretinism

 

 

 

 

 

Secondary pathological

 

 

 

 

And

 

Acquired obstruction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operative injury

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chemical burns

 

 

 

 

How

 

Hysterectomy

 

 

 

 

Often

 

Ovarian dysfunction

 

 

Delhi

 

 

 

 

Destruction of both ovaries

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Disease

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radiation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Surgical removal

 

Population

 

 

 

 

Primary ovarian failure

 

 

Has

 

 

 

 

Hyperhormonal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Metropathia (early phases)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hormone administration

Slowly

 

 

 

 

Stein-Leventhal syndrome

Multiplied

 

 

 

 

Masculinizing ovarian tumours

 

Aspirin

 

 

 

 

Arrhenoblastoma

 

 

Has

 

 

 

 

Hilus cell tumour

 

 

Many

 

 

 

 

Masculinising luteoma

 

Advantages

 

 

 

 

Adrenal like tumours

 

 

Picture

 

Pituitary disorders

 

 

Please

 

 

 

 

Psychological

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anorexia

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pituitary shock

Buy

 

 

 

 

Basophil adenoma

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cushingís disease

A

 

 

 

 

Acidophil tumours

Pen

 

 

 

 

Pituitary failure

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chromophobe adenoma

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cysts

 

 

 

 

 

 

Simmondís disease

 

 

 

 

 

 

Postpartum pituitary necrosis

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chiari-Frommel syndrome

 

 

At

 

Adrenal dysfunction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adrenal cortical hyperplasia (Adrenogenital syndrome)

 

 

 

 

 

Adrenal cortical tumours

 

 

 

 

 

 

Addissonís disease

 

 

 

The

 

Thyroid dysfunction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hyperthyroidism

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hypothyroidism (late stages)

 

 

Door

 

Diabetes mellitus

 

 

 

 

Darshan

 

Debilitating general disease

 

 

 

 

Not

 

Nutritional

 

 

 

 

Colourful

 

Chromosomal anomalies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Turnerís syndrome

 

 

 

 

 

 

Klinefelterís syndrome

 

 

 

 

 

 

Super-female

 

Indications of Progestogen Therapy

In

Inhibition of evulsion, ovulation pain and ovulation bleeding

Charge

Contraception

S

Spasmodic dysmenorrhoea

P

Premenstrual tension

M

Metropathia haemorrhagica

Department

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding

Puts

Puberty menorrhagia

Purse

Pregnancy test

And

Amenorrhoea

Pen

Pituitary rebound

Mostly

Menstrual irregularities

In

Infertility

An

Abortion

Emergency

Endometriosis

Unit

Uterine carcinoma

Causes of Menorrhagia

General

 

Blood dyscrasia

Severe anaemia

Local

 

Film

Fibroid uterus

Stars

Salpingo-oophoritis

Retain

Retroverted uterus

Charm

Chocolate cyst of ovary

Endlessly

Endometriosis

Endocrine disorders

 

He

Hyperthyroidism (early stages)

Met

Myxoedema

A

Acromegaly (early stages)

Doctor

Diabetes mellitusw

Operative Complications of Prolapse Uterus

Early

Renal

Retention of urine

Colic?

Cystitis and pyelonephritis

Have

Haemorrhage

I

Infection

V

Visceral injuries

P

Phlebothrombosis and pulmonary embolism

Late

Ration

Recurrence of prolapsed

Delivery

Dyspareunia

Assistant

Abortion, premature labour, and dystocia

Degenerative Changes in Fibroid

A

Atrophic changes

High

Hyaline degeneration

Class

Cystic degeration

F

Fatty degeration

R

Red degeneration

C

Calcareous degeneration

S

Sarcomatous degeneration

Effects of Fibroid

On pregnancy

 

Send

Sterility

A

Abortion or miscarriage

Male

Malpresentation

Person

Placenta praevia

Preferably

Premature labour

On labour

 

Unions

Uterine inertia

Often

Obstructed labour

Demand

Delayed labour

Repeat

Retained placenta

Poll

Postpartum haemorrhage

On puerperium

 

Please

Puerperal sepsis

Supply

Subinvolution

Pant

Puerperal retroversion

Piece

Postpartum haemorrhage (secondary)

Immediately

Inversion of uterus

Ovarian Tumours

Arising from surface epithelium of ovaries

 

Benign

Sensible

 

Simple serous cystedenoma

 

People

 

Paillary serous cystedenoma

 

Play

 

Pseudomucinous cystedenoma

 

Badminton

 

Brenner tumour

 

Malignant

Some

 

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

 

People

 

Pseudomucinous cystadenocarcinoma

 

See

 

Solid carcinoma

 

Match

 

Mesonephroma

 

Metastatic tumours

 

Typical from :-

Selected

 

 

Stomach

In

 

 

Intestine

Bombay

 

 

Breast

University

 

 

Uterus

Atypical

 

Krukenberg tumour

 

Arising from connective tissue of ovary

 

Fibromata (benign)

 

 

Sarcomata (malignant)

 

 

Arising from ovum

 

Disco

Dermoid cyst

 

 

Star

Solid teratoma

 

 

Coming

Chorion epithelioma

 

 

Soon

Struma ovarr

 

 

Arising from primitive mesenchyme

 

Feminising

 

 

Great