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Dr K Chaudhry
DoctorKC's
Anatomy Made Easy 

With Mnemonics

by
Saksham Chaudhry


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Introduction Osteology Muscular System Arthrology Cardio Vascular System
Respiratory System Digestive System Genito-Urinary System Endocrine System Nervous System
Special Sensory Organs Lymphatic System Surface Anatomy Cross Sectional Anatomy Histology
General Embryology Systemic Embryology Human Genetics AIIMS Syllabus
Chapter 16
General Embryology
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Chapter 16. General Embryology

(a) Definition of embryology; gestation period: definition of gamete sperm, Ovum; gametogenesis, migration of primordial germ cells into gonadal ridge; spermatogenesis; structure of sperm, oogenesis; structure of ovum; growth of ovarian follicles, ovarian and uterine cycles.

(b) Sperm in the male genital tract; sperm in the female genital tract, activation and apacitation of sperm in the female genital tract.

(c) First Week of Development

Definition and normal site and process of fertilisation, formation of zygote, cleavage division; formation of morula and blastocyst.

(d) Second Week of Development

Differentiation of embryoblast and trophoblast; changes in the embryoblast formation of bilainar germ disc; changes in the trophoblast; formation of cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, amniotic membrane, yolk sac, extra embryonic mesoderm and extra embryonic coelom and connecting stalk; formation of chorion, amniotic cavity, primary yolk sac cavity appearance of prochordal plate.

Implantation; formation of decidua, types of implantation and abnormal sites of implantation

(e) Third Week of Development

Appearance of primitive streak and primitive node; formation of intraembroynic mesoderm resulting in trilaminar germ disc; gastrulation formation of notochord, buccopharyngeal and cloacal membranes, paraxial, intermediate and lateral plate mesoderm, secondary yolk sac, intraembryonic coelom and allantoic diverticulum; derivatives of ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.

(f) Fourth To Eighth week of Development (Embryonic period)

Formation of somites, neural tube, cephalocaudal folding, lateral foldings, body form, stomodeum, proctodeum, gut and vitelline duct; subdivisions of gut into foregut, midgut and hindgut.

Development from third month to birth (Fetal period)

(g) Maturation of tissues and organs and rapid growth of body.

(h) Estimation of age. 

Placenta

(i) Formation of placenta and chorionic villi, decidua basalis; features and functions of placenta; placental circulation; abnormalities; placental barrier; placentome, types of placenta.

Umbilical Cord

(j) Formation of umbilical cord; features of umbilical cord.

Amniotic Cavity

(k) Amniotic cavity and membrane; amniotic fluid functions, expansions of amniotic cavity and fusion with chorion; chorion laeve with decidua capsularis; decidua capsularis with parietalis; obliteration of chorionic and uterine cavities; function of fused foetal membranes to dilate cervical canal.

(l) Abnormalities; obliteration of chorionic and uterine cavities; abnormalities of chorion.

(m) Formation of twins and types of twins.

(n) Arrangement of foetal membranes. Conjoined twins.

Teratology

(o) Genetical and environmental factors as causative factors for congenital malformations.

(p) Mode of actions of teratogenes and critical periods.


 

 

 
 
 

 

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