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Dr K Chaudhry
DoctorKC's
Anatomy Made Easy 

With Mnemonics

by
Saksham Chaudhry


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Introduction Osteology Muscular System Arthrology Cardio Vascular System
Respiratory System Digestive System Genito-Urinary System Endocrine System Nervous System
Special Sensory Organs Lymphatic System Surface Anatomy Cross Sectional Anatomy Histology
General Embryology Systemic Embryology Human Genetics AIIMS Syllabus
Chapter 18
Human Genetics
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Chapter 18. Human Genetics

(a) Cell, cell division, mitosis and meiosis, nucleus, DNA, chromosomes, classification, karyotype, chromosomal aberrations (Klinefelter, Turner and Down’s Syndrome) Prenatal diagnosis for congenital abnormalities, sex determination.

(b) Pedigree chart, pathogenesis of chromosomal aberrations and their effects, recombinant DNA, genetic inheritance, genetic counselling, inborn errors of metabolism.


 
 
 
 
 



 
 

Chapter R01 : General Anatomy



General principles

  1. Principle of polarity: 
Polarity is reflected mainly in the formal and functional contrast between the head (predominantly spherical form) and the extremities (radially arranged skeletal elements). In the phylogenetic development of the upright position of the human body, polarity developed also among the extremities: The lower extremities provide the basis for locomotion whereas the upper extremities are not needed anymore for locomotion, so they can be used for gesture, manual and artistic activities.
2. The principle of segmentation: This principle dominates in the trunk. The anatomical structures (vertebrae, pairs of ribs, muscles, and nerves) are arranged segmentally and replicate rhythmically in a similar way.

3. The principle of bilateral symmetry: Both sides of the body are separated by a midsagittal plane and resemble each other like image and mirror-image. 

Regional lines
 
P
Parasternal line
M
Midclavicular line
A
Anterior axillary line
U
Umbilical-pelvic line

Body Organs


 
B
1 Brain
L
2 Lung
D
3 Diaphragm
H
4 Heart
L
5 Liver
S
6 Stomach
C
7 Colon
S
8 Small intestine
T
9 Testis
K
10 Kidney
U
11 Ureter
A
12 Anal canal
C
13 Clavicle
M
14 Manubrium sterni
C
15 Costal arch
U
16 Umbilicus
A
17 Anterior superior iliac spine
I
18 Inguinal ligament
S
19 Scapular spine
S
20 Spinous processes
I
21 Iliac crest
C
22 Coccyx and sacrum


 



 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

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